Research ~ Resource Material|
Biography ~ ONLINE!
by Webster G.
Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin
Chapter 4 ~ "THE CENTER OF POWER"
IS IN WASHINGTON
Previous Chapter Return to the Table of
Contents Next Chapter
Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. 59 Wall Street, New York Cable Address
"Shipley-New York" Business Established 1818
September 5, 1944
The Honorable W. A. Harriman American Ambassador to the U.S.S.R. American
Embassy, Moscow, Russia
Thinking that possibly Bullitt's article in the recent issue of "LIFE" may
not have come to your attention, I have clipped it and am sending it to
you, feeling that it will interest you.
At present writing all is well here.
With warm regards, I am, Sincerely yours,
'At present writing all is well here." Thus the ambassador to Russia was
reassured by the managing partner of his firm, Prescott Bush. Only 22 and a
half months before, the U.S. government had seized and shut down the Union
Banking Corporation, which had been operated on behalf of Nazi Germany by
Bush and the Harrimans. But that was behind them now, and they were safe.
There would be no publicity on the Harriman-Bush sponsorship of Hitlerism.
Prescott's son George, the future U.S. President, was also safe. Three days
before this note to Moscow was written, George Bush had parachuted from a
Navy bomber airplane over the Pacific Ocean, killing his two crew members
when the unpiloted plane crashed.
Five months later, in February 1945, Prescott's boss Averell Harriman
escorted President Franklin Roosevelt to the fateful summit meeting with
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin at Yalta. In April Roosevelt died. The
agreement reached at Yalta, calling for free elections in Poland once the
war ended, was never enforced.
Over the next eight years (1945 through 1952), Prescott Bush was Harriman's
anchor in the New York financial world. The increasingly powerful Mr.
Harriman and his allies gave Eastern Europe over to Soviet dictatorship. A
Cold War was then undertaken, to "counterbalance" the Soviets.
This British-inspired strategy paid several nightmlarish dividends. Eastern
Europe was to remain enslaved. Germany was "permanently" divided.
Anglo-American power was jointly exercised over the non-Soviet "Free
World." The confidential functions of the British and American governments
were merged. The Harriman clique took possession of the U.S. national
security apparatus, and in doing so, they opened the gate and let the Bush
- * * * -
Following his services to Germany's Nazi Party, Averell Harriman spent
several years mediating between the British, American, and Soviet
governments inthe war to stop the Nazis. He was ambassador to Moscow from
1943 to 1946.
President Harry Truman, whom Harriman and his friends held in amused
contempt, appointed Harriman U.S. ambassador to Britain in 1946.
Harriman was at lunch with former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
one day in 1946, when Truman telephoned. Harriman asked Churchill if he
should accept Truman's offer to come back to the U.S. as Secretary of
Commerce. According to Harriman's account, Churchill told him: "Absolutely.
The center of power is in Washington." Note #1
The reorganization of the American government after World War II -- the
creation of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency along British lines, for
example -- had devastating consequences. We are concerned here with only
certain aspects of that overall transformation, those matters of policy and
family which gave shape to the life and mind of George Bush, and gave him
access to power.
It was in these postwar years that George Bush attended Yale University,
and was inducted into the Skull and Bones society. The Bush family's home
at that time was in Greenwich, Connecticut. But it was just then that
George's parents, Prescott and Dorothy Walker Bush, were wintering in a
peculiar spot in Florida, a place that is excluded from mention in
literature originating from Bush circles.
Certain national news accounts early in 1991 featured the observations on
President Bush's childhood by his elderly mother Dorothy. She was said to
be a resident of Hobe Sound, Florida. More precisely, the President's
mother lived in a hyper-security arrangement created a half-century earlier
by Averell Harriman, adjacent to Hobe Sound. Its correct name is Jupiter
During his political career, George Bush has claimed many different "home"
states, including Texas, Maine, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. It has not
been expedient for him to claim Florida, though that state has a vital link
to his role in the world, as we shall see. And George Bush's home base in
Florida, throughout his adult life, has been Jupiter Island.
The unique, bizarre setup on Jupiter Island began in 1931, following the
merger of W.A. Harriman and Co. with the British-American firm Brown
The reader will recall Mr. Samuel Pryor, the "Merchant of Death." A partner
with the Harrimans, Prescott Bush, George Walker, and Nazi boss Fritz
Thyssen in banking and shipping enterprises, Sam Pryor remained executive
committee chairman of Remington Arms. In this period, the Nazi private
armies (SA and SS) were supplied with American arms -- most likely by Pryor
and his company -- as they moved to overthrow the German republic. Such
gun-running as an instrument of national policy would later become
notorious in the "Iran-Contra" affair.
Sam Pryor's daughter Permelia married Yale graduate Joseph V. Reed on the
last day of 1927. Reed immediately went to work for Prescott Bush and
George Walker, as an apprentice at W.A. Harriman and Co.
During World War II, Joseph V. Reed had served in the "special services"
section of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. A specialist in security, codes and
espionage, Reed later wrote a book entitled "Fun with Cryptograms". Note #2
Sam Pryor had had property around Hobe Sound, Florida, for some time. In
1931, Joseph and Permelia Pryor Reed bought the entirety of Jupiter Island.
This is a typically beautiful Atlantic coast "barrier island," a half-mile
wide and nine miles long. The middle of Jupiter Island lies just off Hobe
Sound. The south bridge connects the island with the town of Jupiter, to
the north of Palm Beach. It is about 90 minutes by auto from Miami --
today, a few minutes by helicopter.
Early in 1991, a newspaper reporter asked a friend of the Bush family about
security arrangements on Jupiter Island. He responded, "If you called up
the White House, would they tell you h ow many security people they had?
It's not that Jupiter Island is the White House, although he [George Bush]
does come down frequently."
But for several decades before Bush was President, Jupiter Island had an ord
inance requiring the registration and fingerprinting of all housekeepers,
gardeners, and other non-residents working on the island. The Jupiter
Island police department says that there are sensors in the two main roads
that can track every automobile on the island. If a car stops in the
street, the police will be there within one or two minutes. Surveillance is
a duty of all employees of the Town of Jupiter Island. News reporters are
to be prevented from visiting the island. Note #3
To create this astonishing private club, Joseph and Permelia Pryor Reed
sold land only to those who would fit in. Permelia Reed was still the
grande dame of the island when George Bush was inaugurated President in
1989. In recognition of the fact that the Reeds know where "all" the bodies
are buried, President Bush appointed Permelia's son, Joseph V. Reed, Jr.,
chief of protocol for the U.S. State Dept., in charge of private
arrangements with foreign dignitaries.
Averell Harriman made Jupiter Island a staging ground for his 1940s
takeover of the U.S. national security apparatus. It was in that connection
that the island became possibly the most secretive private place in
Let us briefly survey the neighborhood, back then in 1946-48, to see some
of the uses various of the residents had for the Harriman clique.
Residence on Jupiter Island
Note #b|Jupiter Islander "Robert A. Lovett," Note #4, Prescott Bush's
partner at Brown Brothers Harriman, had been Assistant Secretary of War for
Air from 1941 to 1945. Lovett was the leading American advocate of the
policy of terror-bombing of civilians. He organized the Strategic Bombing
Survey, carried out for the American and British governments by the staff
of the Prudential Insurance Company, guided by London's Tavistock
In the postwar period, Prescott Bush was associated with Prudential
Insurance, one of Lovett's intelligence channels to the British secret
services. Prescott was listed by Prudential as a director of the company
for about two years in the early 1950s.
Their Strategic Bombing Survey failed to demonstrate any real military
advantage accruing from such outrages as the fire-bombing of Dresden,
Germany. But the Harrimanites nevertheless persisted in the advocacy of
terror from the air. They glorified this as "psychological warfare," a part
of the utopian military doctrine opposed to the views of military
traditionalists such as Gen. Douglas MacArthur.
Robert Lovett later advised President Lyndon Johnson to terror-bomb
Vietnam. President George Bush revived the doctrine with the bombing of
civilian areas in Panama, and the destruction of Baghdad.
On October 22, 1945, Secretary of War Robert Patterson created the Lovett
Committee, chaired by Robert A. Lovett, to advise the government on the
post-World War II organization of U.S. intelligence activities. The
existence of this committee was unknown to the public until an official CIA
history was released from secrecy in 1989. But the CIA's author (who was
President Bush's prep school history teacher; see chapter 5) gives no real
details of the Lovett Committee's functioning, claiming: "The record of the
testimony of the Lovett Committee, unfortunately, was not in the archives
of the agency when this account was written." Note #5
The CIA's self-history does inform us of the advice that Lovett provided to
the Truman cabinet, as the official War Department intelligence proposal.
Lovett decided that there should be a separate Central Intelligence Agency.
The new agency would "consult" with the armed forces, but it must be the
sole collecting agency in the field of foreign espionage and
counterespionage. The new agency should have an independent budget, and its
appropriations should be granted by Congress without public hearings.
Lovett appeared before the Secretaries of State, War, and Navy on November
14, 1945. He spoke highly of the FBI's work because it had "the best
personality file in the world." Lovett said the FBI was expert at producing
false documents, an art "which we developed so successfully during the war
and at which we became outstandingly adept." Lovett pressed for a virtual
resumption of the wartime Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in a new CIA.
U.S. military traditionalists centered around Gen. Douglas MacArthur
opposed Lovett's proposal. The continuation of the OSS had been attacked at
the end of the war on the grounds that the OSS was entirely under British
control, and that it would constitute an American Gestapo. Note #6 But the
CIA was established in 1947 according to the prescription of Robert Lovett,
of Jupiter Island.
/ Note #b|"Charles Payson" and his wife, "Joan Whitney Payson," were
extended family members of Harriman's and business associates of the Bush
Joan's aunt, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, was a relative of the Harrimans.
Gertrude's son, Cornelius Vanderbilt ("Sonny") Whitney, long-time chairman
of Pan American Airways (Prescott was a Pan Am director), became assistant
secretary of the U.S. Air Force in 1947. Sonny's wife Marie had divorced
him and married Averell Harriman in 1930. Joan and Sonny's uncle, Air
Marshal Sir Thomas Elmhirst, was director of intelligence for the British
Air Force from 1945 to 1947.
Joan's brother, John Hay ("Jock") Whitney, was to be ambassador to Great
Britain from 1955 to 1961 ... when it would be vital for Prescott and
George Bush to have such a friend. Joan's father, grandfather, and uncle
were members of the Skull and Bones secret society.
Charles Payson organized a uranium refinery in 1948. Later, he was chairman
of Vitro Corporation, makers of parts for submarine-launched ballistic
missiles, equipment for frequency surveillance and torpedo guidance, and
other subsurface weaponry.
Naval warfare has long been a preoccupation of the British Empire. British
penetration of the U.S. Naval Intelligence service has been particularly
heavy since the tenure of Joan's Anglophile grandfather, William C.
Whitney, as secretary of the Navy for President Grover Cleveland. This
traditional covert British orientation in the U.S. Navy, Naval Intelligence
and the Navy's included service, the Marine Corps, forms a backdrop to the
career of George Bush -- and to the whole neighborhood on Jupiter Island.
Naval Intelligence maintained direct relations with gangster boss Meyer
Lansky for Anglo-American political operations in Cuba during World War II,
well before the establishment of the CIA. Lansky officially moved to
Florida in 1953. / Note #7
/ Note #b|"George Herbert Walker, Jr." (Skull and Bones, 1927), was
extremely close to his nephew George Bush, helping to sponsor his entry
into the oil business in the 1950s. "Uncle Herbie" was also a partner of
Joan Whitney Payson when they co-founded the New York Mets baseball team in
1960. His son, G.H. Walker III, was a Yale classmate of "Nicholas Brady"
and Moreau D. Brown (Thatcher Brown's grandson), forming what was called
the "Yale Mafia" on Wall Street.
/ Note #b|"Walter S. Carpenter, Jr." had been chairman of the finance
committee of the Du Pont Corporation (1930-40). In 1933, Carpenter oversaw
Du Pont's purchase of Remington Arms from Sam Pryor and the Rockefellers,
and led Du Pont into partnership with the Nazi I.G. Farben company for the
manufacture of explosives. Carpenter became Du Pont's president in 1940.
His cartel with the Nazis was broken up by the U.S. government.
Nevertheless, Carpenter remained Du Pont's president, as the company's
technicians participated massively in the Manhattan Project to produce the
first atomic bomb. He was chairman of Du Pont from 1948 to 1962, retaining
high-level access to U.S. strategic activities.
Walter Carpenter and Prescott Bush were fellow activists in the Mental
Hygiene Society. Originating at Yale University in 1908, the movement had
been organized into the World Federation of Mental Health by Montague
Norman, himself a frequen t mental patient, former Brown Brothers partner
and Bank of England Governor. Norman had appointed as the federation's
chairman, Brigadier John Rawlings Rees, director of the Tavistock Clinic,
chief psychiatrist and psychological warfare expert for the British
intelligence services. Prescott was a director of the society in
Connecticut; Carpenter was a director in Delaware.
/ Note #b|"Paul Mellon" was the leading heir to the Mellon fortune, and a
long-time neighbor of Averell Harriman's in Middleburg, Virginia, as well
as Jupiter Island, Florida. Paul's father, Andrew Mellon, U.S. treasury
secretary 1921-32, had approved the transactions of Harriman, Pryor, and
Bush with the Warburgs and the Nazis. Paul Mellon's son-in-law, "David K.E.
Bruce," worked in Prescott Bush's W.A. Harriman & Co. during the late
1920s; was head of the London branch of U.S. intelligence during World War
II; and was Averell Harriman's Assistant Secretary of Commerce in 1947-48.
Mellon family money and participation would be instrumental in many
domestic U.S. projects of the new Central Intelligence Agency.
/ Note #b|"Carll Tucker" manufactured electronic guidance equipment for
the Navy. With the Mellons, Tucker was an owner of South American oil
properties. Mrs. Tucker was the great-aunt of "Nicholas Brady," later
George Bush's Iran-Contra partner and U.S. treasury secretary. Their son
Carll Tucker, Jr. (Skull and Bones, 1947), was among the 15 Bonesmen who
selected George Bush for induction in the class of 1948.
/ Note #b|"C. Douglas Dillon" was the boss of William H. Draper, Jr. in
the Draper-Prescott Bush-Fritz Thyssen Nazi banking scheme of the 1930s and
40s. His father, Clarence Dillon, created the Vereinigte Stahlwerke
(Thyssen's German Steel Trust) in 1926. C. Douglas Dillon made "Nicholas
Brady" the chairman of the Dillon Read firm in 1971 and himself continued
as chairman of the Executive Committee. C. Douglas Dillon would be a vital
ally of his neighbor Prescott Bush during the Eisenhower administration.
/ Note #b|"Publisher Nelson Doubleday" headed his family's publishing
firm, founded under the auspices of J.P. Morgan and other British Empire
representatives. When George Bush's "Uncle Herbie" died, Doubleday took
over as majority owner and chief executive of the New York Mets baseball
Some other specialized corporate owners had their place in Harriman's
/ Note #b|"George W. Merck," chairman of Merck & Co., drug and chemical
manufacturers, was director of the War Research Service: Merck was the
official chief of all U.S. research into biological warfare from 1942 until
at least the end of World War II. After 1944, Merck's organization was
placed under the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service. His family firm in Germany
and the United States was famous for its manufacture of morphine.
/ Note #b|"James H. McGraw, Jr.," chairman of McGraw Hill Publishing
Company, was a member of the advisory board to the U.S. Chemical Warfare
Service and a member of the Army Ordnance Association Committee on
/ Note #b|"Fred H. Haggerson," chairman of Union Carbide Corp., produced
munitions, chemicals, and firearms.
/ Note #b|"A.L. Cole" was useful to the Jupiter Islanders as an executive
of "Readers Digest." In 1965, just after performing a rather dirty favor
for George Bush [which will be discussed in a coming chapter -- ed.], Cole
became chairman of the executive committee of the "Digest," the world's
>From the late 1940s, Jupiter Island has served as a center for the
direction of covert action by the U.S. government and, indeed, for the
covert management of the government. Jupiter Island will reappear later on,
in our account of George Bush in the Iran-Contra affair.
George Bush graduated from Yale in 1948. He soon entered the family's
Dresser oil supply concern in Texas. We shall now briefly describe the
forces that descended on Washington, D.C. during those years when Bush,
with the assistance of family and powerful friends, was becoming
"established in business on his own."
>From 1948 to 1950, Prescott Bush's boss Averell Harriman was U.S.
"ambassador-at-large" to Europe. He was a non-military "Theater Commander,"
the administrator of the multi-billion-dollar Marshall Plan, participating
in all military/strategic decision-making by the Anglo-American alliance.
The U.S. secretary of defense, James Forrestal, had become a problem to the
Harrimanites. Forrestal had long been an executive at Dillon Read on Wall
Street. But in recent years he had gone astray. As secretary of the navy in
1944, Forrestal proposed the racial integration of the Navy. As defense
secretary, he pressed for integration in the armed forces and this
eventually became the U.S. policy.
Forrestal opposed the utopians' strategy of appeasement coupled with
brinkmanship. He was simply opposed to communism. On March 28, 1949,
Forrestal was forced out of office and flown on an Air Force plane to
Florida. He was taken to "Hobe Sound" (Jupiter Island), where Robert Lovett
and an army psychiatrist dealt with him. / Note #8
He was flown back to Washington, locked in Walter Reed Army Hospital and
given insulin shock treatments for alleged "mental exhaustion." He was
denied all visitors except his estranged wife and children -- his son had
been Averell Harriman's aide in Moscow. On May 22, Forrestal's body was
found, his bathrobe cord tied tightly around his neck, after he had plunged
from a sixteenth-story hospital window. The chief psychiatrist called the
death a suicide even before any investigation was started. The results of
the Army's inquest were kept secret. Forrestal's diaries were published, 80
percent deleted, after a year of direct government censorship and
- * * * -
North Korean troops invaded South Korea in June 1950, after U.S. Secretary
of State Dean Acheson (Harriman's very close friend) publicly specified
that Korea would not be defended. With a new war on, Harriman came back to
serve as President Truman's adviser, to "oversee national security
Harriman replaced Clark Clifford, who had been special counsel to Truman.
Clifford, however, remained close to Harriman and his partners as they
gained more and more power. Clifford later wrote about his cordial
relations with Prescott Bush:
"Prescott Bush ... had become one of my frequent golfing partners in the
fifties, and I had both liked and respected him.... Bush had a splendid
singing voice, and particularly loved quartet singing. In the fifties, he
organized a quartet that included my daughter Joyce.... They would sing in
Washington, and, on occasion, he invited the group to Hobe Sound in Florida
to perform. His son [George], though, had never struck me as a strong or
forceful person. In 1988, he presented himself successfully to the voters
as an outsider -- no small trick for a man whose roots wound through
Connecticut, Yale, Texas oil, the CIA, a patrician background, wealth, and
the Vice Presidency." / Note #9
With Forrestal out of the way, Averell Harriman and Dean Acheson drove to
Leesburg, Virginia, on July 1, 1950, to hire the British-backed U.S. Gen.
George C. Marshall as secretary of defense. At the same time, Prescott's
partner, Robert Lovett, himself became assistant secretary of defense.
Lovett, Marshall, Harriman, and Acheson went to work to unhorse Gen.
Douglas MacArthur, commander of U.S. forces in Asia. MacArthur kept Wall
Street's intelligence agencies away from his command, and favored real
independence for the non-white nations. Lovett called for MacArthur's
firing on March 23, 1951, citing MacArthur's insistence on defeating the
Communist Chinese invaders in Korea. MacArthur's famous message, that there
was "no substitute for victory," was read in Congress on April 5; MacArthur
was fired on April 10, 1951.
That September, Robert Lovett replaced Marshall as secretary of defense.
Meanwhile, Harriman was named director of the Mutual Security Agency,
making him the U.S. chief of the Anglo-American military alliance. By now,
Brown Brothers Harriman was everything but commander-in-chief.
- * * * -
These were, of course, exciting times for the Bush family, whose wagon was
hitched to the financial gods of Olympus -- to Jupiter, that is.
Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. 59 Wall Street, New York 5, N.Y. Business
Established 1818 Cable Address "Shipley-NewYork"
April 2, 1951
The Honorable W.A. Harriman, The White House, Washington, D.C.
I was sorry to miss you in Washington but appreciate your cordial note. I
shall hope for better luck another time.
I hope you had a good rest at Hobe Sound.
With affectionate regard, I am,
Prescott S. Bush
A central focus of the Harriman security regime in Washington (1950-53) was
the organization of covert operations, and "psychological warfare."
Harriman, together with his lawyers and business partners, Allen and John
Foster Dulles, wanted the government's secret services to conduct extensive
propaganda campaigns and mass-psychology experiments within the U.S.A., and
paramilitary campaigns abroad. This would supposedly ensure a stable
world-wide environment favorable to Anglo-American financial and political
The Harriman security regime created the Psychological Strategy Board (PSB)
in 1951. The man appointed director of the PSB, Gordon Gray, is familiar to
the reader as the sponsor of the child sterilization experiments, carried
out by the Harrimanite eugenics movement in North Carolina following World
Gordon Gray was an avid Anglophile, whose father had gotten controlling
ownership of the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company through alliance with the
British Imperial tobacco cartel's U.S. representatives, the Duke family of
North Carolina. Gordon's brother, R.J. Reynolds chairman Bowman Gray Jr.,
was also a naval intelligence officer, known around Washington as the
"founder of operational intelligence." Gordon Gray became a close friend
and political ally of Prescott Bush; and Gray's son became for Prescott's
son, George, his lawyer and the shield of his covert policy.
But President Harry Truman, as malleable as he was, constituted an obstacle
to the covert warriors. An insular Missouri politician vaguely favorable to
the U.S. Constitution, he remained skeptical about secret service
activities that reminded him of the Nazi Gestapo.
So, "covert operations" could not fully take off without a change of the
Washington regime. And it was with the Republican Party that Prescott Bush
was to get his turn.
Prescott Runs for Senate
Prescott had made his first attempt to enter national politics in 1950, as
his partners took control of the levers of governmental power. Remaining in
charge of Brown Brothers Harriman, he ran against Connecticut's William
Benton for his seat in the U.S. Senate. (The race was actually for a
two-year unexpired term, left empty by the death of the previous senator).
In those days, Wisconsin's drunken Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was making a
circus-like crusade against communist influence in Washington. McCarthy
attacked liberals and leftists, State Department personnel, politicians,
and Hollywood figures. He generally left unscathed the Wall Street and
London strategists who donated Eastern Europe and China to communist
dictatorship -- like George Bush, their geopolitics was beyond left and
Prescott Bush had no public ties to the notorious Joe McCarthy, and
appeared to be neutral about his crusade. But the Wisconsin senator had his
uses. Joe McCarthy came into Connecticut three times that year to campaign
for Bush and against the Democrats. Bush himself made charges of "Korea,
Communism and Corruption" into a slick campaign phrase against Benton,
which then turned up as a national Republican slogan.
The response was disappointing. Only small crowds turned out to hear Joe
McCarthy, and Benton was not hurt. McCarthy's pro-Bush rally in New Haven,
in a hall that seated 6,000, drew only 376 people. Benton joked on the
radio that "200 of them were my spies."
Prescott Bush resigned from the Yale Board of Fellows for his campaign, and
the board published a statement to the effect that the "Yale vote" should
support Bush -- despite the fact that Benton was a Yale man, and in many
ways identical in outlook to Bush. Yale's Whiffenpoof singers appeared
regularly for Prescott's campaign. None of this was particularly effective,
however, with the voting population. / Note #1 / Note #0
Then Papa Bush ran into a completely unexpected problem. At that time, the
old Harriman eugenics movement was centered at Yale University. Prescott
Bush was a Yale trustee, and his former Brown Brothers Harriman partner,
Lawrence Tighe, was Yale's treasurer. In that connection, a slight glimmer
of the truth about the Bush-Harriman firm's Nazi activities now made its
way into the campaign.
Not only was the American Eugenics Society itself headquartered at Yale,
but all parts of this undead fascist movement had a busy home at Yale. The
coercive psychiatry and sterilization advocates had made the Yale/New Haven
Hospital and Yale Medical School their laboratories for hands-on practice
in brain surgery and psychological experimentation. And the Birth Control
League was there, which had long trumpeted the need for eugenical births --
fewer births for parents with "inferior" bloodlines. Prescott's partner
Tighe was a Connecticut director of the league, and the Connecticut
league's medical advisor was the eugenics advocate, Dr. Winternitz of Yale
Now in 1950, people who knew something about Prescott Bush knew that he had
very unsavory roots in the eugenics movement. There were then, just after
the anti-Hitler war, few open advocates of sterilization of "unfit" or
"unnecessary" people. (That would be revived later, with the help of
General Draper and his friend George Bush.) But the Birth Control League
was public -- just about then it was changing its name to the euphemistic
Then, very late in the 1950 senatorial campaign, Prescott Bush was publicly
exposed for being an activist in that section of the old fascist eugenics
movement. Prescott Bush lost the election by about 1,000 out of 862,000
votes. He and his family blamed the defeat on the expose. The defeat was
burned into the family's memory, leaving a bitterness and perhaps a desire
In his foreword to a population control propaganda book, George Bush wrote
about that 1950 election: "My own first awareness of birth control as a
public policy issue came with a jolt in 1950 when my father was running for
United States Senate in Connecticut. Drew Pearson, on the Sunday before
Election day, 'revealed' that my father was involved with Planned
Parenthod.... Many political observers felt a sufficient number of voters
were swayed by his alleged contacts with the birth controllers to cost him
the election...." / Note #1 / Note #1
Prescott Bush gave a graphic description of these events in his "oral
history" interview at Columbia University: "In the 1950 campaign, when I
ran against Benton, the very last week, Drew Pearson, famous columnist, was
running a radio program at that time.... In this particular broadcast, just
at the end of our campaign [Pearson said]: "I predict that Benton will
retain his seat in the United States Senate, because it has just been made
known that Prescott Bush, his opponent, is president of the Birth Control
Society" or chairman, member of the board of directors, or something, "of
the Birth Control Society. In this country, and of course with
Connecticut's heavy Catholic population, and its laws against birth control
... this is going to be too much for Bush to rise above. Benton will be
elected. I predict."
The next Sunday, they handed out, at these Catholic Churches in Waterbury
and Torrington and Bridgeport, handbills, quoting Drew Pearson's statement
on the radio about Prescott Bush, you see -- I predict. Well, my telephone
started ringing that Sunday at home, and when I'd answer, or Dotty
[Prescott's wife, George's mother] would answer -- "Is this true, what they
say about Prescott Bush? This can't be true. Is it true?"
She'd say, "No, it isn't tru e." Of course, it wasn't true. But you never
catch up with a thing like this -- the election's just day after tomorrow,
you see? So there's no doubt, in the estimate of our political leaders,
that this one thing cost me many thousand votes -- whether it was 1, 3, 5
or 10 thousand we don't know, we can't possibly tell, but it was enough.
To have overcome that thousand vote, it would only have had to be 600
[Mrs. Bush then corrected the timing in Prescott Bush's recollections.]
"I'd forgotten the exact sequence, but that was it.... The state then --
and I think still is -- probably about 55 percent Catholic population, with
all the Italian derivation people [sic], and Polish is very heavy, and the
Catholic church is very dominant here, and the archbishop was death on this
birth control thing. They fought repeal every time it came up in the
legislature, and "we never did get rid of that prohibition until just a
year or two ago," as I recall it [emphasis added]. / Note #1 / Note #2
Prescott Bush was defeated, while the other Republican candidates fared
well in Connecticut. He attributed his loss to the Catholic Church. After
all, he had dependable friends in the news media. The "New York Times"
loved him for his bland pleasantness. He just about owned CBS. Twenty years
earlier, Prescott Bush had personally organized the credit to allow William
S. Paley to buy the CBS (radio, later television) network outright. In
return, Prescott was made a director and the financial leader of CBS; Paley
himself became a devoted follower and servitor of Averell Harriman.
Well, when he tried again, Prescott Bush would not leave the outcome to the
blind whims of the public.
Prescott Bush moved into action in 1952 as a national leader of the push to
give the Republican presidential nomination to Gen. Dwight D. ("Ike")
Eisenhower. Among the other team members were Bush's Hitler-era lawyer John
Foster Dulles, and Jupiter Islander C. Douglas Dillon.
Dillon and his father were the pivots as the Harriman-Dulles combination
readied Ike for the presidency. As a friend put it: "When the Dillons ...
invited [Eisenhower] to dinner it was to introduce him to Wall Street
bankers and lawyers." / Note #1 / Note #3
Ike's higher level backers believed, correctly, that Ike would not
interfere with even the dirtiest of their covert action programs. The
bland, pleasant Prescott Bush was in from the beginning: a friend to Ike,
and an original backer of his presidency.
On July 28, 1952, as the election approached, Connecticut's senior U.S.
senator, James O'Brien McMahon, died at the age of 48. (McMahon had been
Assistant U.S. Attorney General, in charge of the Criminal Division, from
1935 to 1939. Was there a chance he might someday speak out about the
unpunished Nazi-era crimes of the wealthy and powerful?)
This was "extremely" convenient for Prescott. He got the Republican
nomination for U.S. senator at a special delegated meeting, with backing by
the Yale-dominated state party leadership. Now he would run in a special
election for the suddenly vacant Senate seat. He could expect to be swept
into office, since he would be on the same electoral ticket as the popular
war hero, General Ike. By a technicality, he would instantly become
Connecticut's senior senator, with extra power in Congress. And the next
regularly scheduled senatorial race would be in 1956 (when McMahon's term
would have ended), so Prescott could run again in that presidential
election year ... once again on Ike's coattails!
With this arrangement, things worked out very smoothly. In Eisenhower's
1952 election victory, Ike won Connecticut by a margin of 129,507 votes out
of 1,092,471. Prescott Bush came in last among the statewide Republicans,
but managed to win by 30,373 out of 1,088,799, his margin nearly 100,000
behind Eisenhower. He took the traditionally Republican towns.
In Eisenhower's 1956 re-election, Ike won Connecticut by 303,036 out of
1,114,954 votes, the largest presidential margin in Connecticut's history.
Prescott Bush managed to win again, by 129,544 votes out of 1,085,206 --
his margin this time 290,082 smaller than Eisenhower's. / Note #1 / Note #4
In January 1963, when this electoral strategy had been played out and his
second term expired, Prescott Bush retired from government and returned to
Brown Brothers Harriman.
The 1952 Eisenhower victory made John Foster Dulles Secretary of State, and
his brother Allen Dulles head of the CIA. The reigning Dulles brothers were
the "Republican" replacements for their client and business partner,
"Democrat" Averell Harriman. Occasional public posturings aside, their
strategic commitments were identical to his.
Undoubtedly the most important work accomplished by Prescott Bush in the
new regime was on the golf links.
Those who remember the Eisenhower presidency know that Ike played ... quite
a bit of golf! Democrats sneered at him for mindlessness, Republicans
defended him for taking this healthy recreation. Golf was Ike's ruling
passion. And there at his side was the loyal, bland, pleasant Senator
Prescott Bush, former president of the U.S. Golf Association, son-in-law of
the very man who had reformulated the rules of the game.
Prescott Bush was Dwight Eisenhower's favorite golf partner. Prescott could
reassure Ike about his counselors, allay his concerns, and monitor his
moods. Ike was very grateful to Prescott, who never revealed the
The public image of his relationship to the President may be gleaned from a
1956 newspaper profile of Prescott Bush's role in the party. The "New York
Times," which 11 years before had consciously protected him from public
exposure as a Nazi banker, fawned over him in an article entitled, "His
Platform: Eisenhower":"A tall, lean, well-dressed man who looks exactly
like what he is -- a wealthy product of the Ivy League -- is chairman of
the Republican Convention's platform committee. As such, Prescott Bush,
Connecticut's senior United States Senator, has a difficult task: he has to
take one word and expand it to about 5,000.
"The one word, of course, is 'Ike' -- but no party platform could ever be
so simple and direct....
"Thus it is that Senator Bush and his fellow committee members ... find
themselves confronted with the job of wrapping around the name Eisenhower
sufficient verbiage to persuade the public that it is the principles of the
party, and not the grin of the man at the head of it, which makes it worthy
of endorsement in [the] November [election].
"For this task Prescott Bush, a singularly practical and direct
conservative, may not be entirely fitted. It is likely that left to his own
devices he would simply offer the country the one word and let it go at
"He is ... convinced that this would be enough to do the trick ... if only
the game were played that way.
"Since it is not, he can be expected to preside with dignity, fairness and
dispatch over the sessions that will prepare the party credo for the 1956
"If by chance there should be any conflicts within the committee ... the
Senator's past can offer a clue to his conduct.
"A former Yale Glee Club and second bass in the All-Time Whiffenpoofs
Quartet, he is ... [called] 'the hottest close-harmony man at Yale in a
span of twenty-five years.'
"Close harmony being a Republican specialty under President Eisenhower, the
hottest close-harmony man at Yale in twenty-five years would seem to be an
ideal choice for the convention job he holds at San Francisco....
"[In addition to his business background, he] also played golf, competing
in a number of tournaments. For eight years he was a member of the
executive committee of the United States Golf Association....
"As a Senator, Connecticut's senior spokeman in the upper house has
followed conservative policies consistent with his business background.
He resigned all his corporate directorships, took a leave from Brown
Brothers, Harriman, and proceeded to go down the line for the Eisenhower
"Around the Senate, he is known as a man who does his committee work
faithfully, defends the Administration stoutly, and f its well into the
clublike atmosphere of Capitol Hill...." / Note #1 / Note #5
Prescott Bush was a most elusive, secretive senator. By diligent research,
his views on some issues may be traced: He was opposed to the development
of public power projects like the Tennessee Valley Authority; he opposed
the constitutional amendment introduced by Ohio Senator John W. Bricker,
which would have required congressional approval of international
agreements by the executive branch.
But Prescott Bush was essentially a covert operative in Washington.
In June 1954, Bush received a letter from Connecticut resident H. Smith
Richardson, owner of Vick Chemical Company (cough drops, Vapo-Rub). It
read, in part, "... At some time before Fall, Senator, I want to get your
advice and counsel on a [new] subject -- namely what should be done with
the income from a foundation which my brother and I set up, and which will
begin its operation in 1956...." / Note #1 / Note #6
This letter presages the establishment of the "H. Smith Richardson
Foundation", a Bush family-dictated private slush fund which was to be
utilized by the Central Intelligence Agency, and by Vice President Bush for
the conduct of his Iran-Contra adventures.
The Bush family knew Richardson and his wife through their mutual
friendship with Sears Roebuck's chairman, General Robert E. Wood. General
Wood had been president of the America First organization, which had
lobbied against war with Hitler's Germany. H. Smith Richardson had
contributed the start-up money for America First and had spoken out against
the United States "joining the Communists" by fighting Hitler. Richardson's
wife was a proud relative of Nancy Langehorne from Virginia, who married
Lord Astor and backed the Nazis from their Cliveden Estate.
General Wood's daughter Mary had married the son of Standard Oil president
William Stamps Farish. The Bushes had stuck with the Farishes through their
disastrous exposure during World War II (See Chapter 3). Young George Bush
and his bride Barbara were especially close to Mary Farish, and to her son
W.S. Farish III, who would be the great confidante of George's presidency.
/ Note #1 / Note #7
H. Smith Richardson was Connecticut's leading "McCarthyite." He planned an
elaborate strategy for Joe McCarthy's intervention in Connecticut's
November 1952 elections, to finally defeat Senator Benton. / Note #1 / Note
#8 (Benton's 1950 victory over Prescott Bush was only for a two-year
unexpired term. He was running in this election for a full term, at the
same time that Prescott Bush was running to fill the seat left vacant by
Senator McMahon's death). / Note #1 / Note #8
The H. Smith Richardson Foundation was organized by Eugene Stetson, Jr.,
Richardson's son-in-law. Stetson (Skull and Bones, 1934) had worked for
Prescott Bush as assistant manager of the New York branch of Brown Brothers
In the late 1950s, the Smith Richardson Foundation took part in the
"psychological warfare" of the CIA. This was not a foreign, but a domestic
covert operation, carried out mainly against unwitting U.S. citizens. CIA
director Allen Dulles and his British allies organized "MK-Ultra," the
testing of psychotropic drugs including LSD on a very large scale,
allegedly to evaluate "chemical warfare" possibilities.
In this period, the Richardson Foundation helped finance experiments at
Bridgewater Hospital in Massachusetts, the center of some of the most
brutal MK-Ultra tortures. These outrages have been graphically portrayed in
the movie, "Titticut Follies."
During 1990, an investigator for this book toured H. Smith Richardson's
"Center for Creative Leadership" just north of Greensboro, North Carolina.
The tour guide said that in these rooms, agents of the Central Intelligence
Agency and the Secret Service are trained. He demonstrated the two-way
mirrors through which the government employees are watched, while they are
put through mind-bending psychodramas. The guide explained that "virtually
everyone who becomes a general" in the U.S. armed forces also goes through
this "training" at the Richardson Center.
Another office of the Center for Creative Leadership is in Langley,
Virginia, at the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. Here
also, Richardson's center trains leaders of the CIA.
The Smith Richardson Foundation will be seen in a later chapter, performing
in the Iran-Contra drama around Vice President George Bush.
- * * * -
Prescott Bush worked throughout the Eisenhower years as a confidential ally
of the Dulles brothers. In July 1956, Egypt's President Gamel Abdul Nasser
announced he would accept the U.S. offer of a loan for the construction of
the Aswan dam project. John Foster Dulles then prepared a statement telling
the Egyptian ambassador that the U.S.A. had decided to retract its offer.
Dulles gave the explosive statement in advance to Prescott Bush for his
approval. Dulles also gave the statement to President Eisenhower, and to
the British government. / Note #1 / Note #9
Nasser reacted to the Dulles brush-off by nationalizing the Suez Canal to
pay for the dam. Israel, then Britain and France, invaded Egypt to try to
overthrow Nasser, leader of the anti-imperial Arab nationalists. However,
Eisenhower refused (for once) to play the Dulles-British game, and the
invaders had to leave Egypt when Britain was threatened with U.S. economic
During 1956, Senator Prescott Bush's value to the Harriman-Dulles political
group increased when he was put on the Senate Armed Services Committee.
Bush toured U.S. and allied military bases throughout the world, and had
increased access to the national security decision-making process.
In the later years of the Eisenhower presidency, Gordon Gray rejoined the
government. As an intimate friend and golfing partner of Prescott Bush,
Gray complemented the Bush influence on Ike. The Bus h-Gray family
partnership in the "secret government" continues up through the George Bush
Gordon Gray had been appointed head of the new Psychological Strategy Board
in 1951 under Averell Harriman's rule as assistant to President Truman for
national security affairs. From 1958 to 1961 Gordon Gray held the identical
post under President Eisenhower. Gray acted as Ike's intermediary,
strategist and hand-holder, in the President's relations with the CIA and
the U.S. and allied military forces.
Eisenhower did not oppose the CIA's covert action projects; he only wanted
to be protected from the consequences of their failure or exposure. Gray's
primary task, in the guise of "oversight" on all U.S. covert action, was to
protect and hide the growing mass of CIA and related secret government
It was not only covert "projects" which were developed by the
Gray-Bush-Dulles combination; it was also new, hidden "structures" of the
United States government.
Senator Henry Jackson challenged these arrangements in 1959 and 1960.
Jackson created a Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery of the Senate
Committee on Governmental Operations, which investigated Gordon Gray's
reign at the National Security Council. On January 26, 1960, Gordon Gray
warned President Eisenhower that a document revealing the existence of a
secret part of the U.S. government had somehow gotten into the bibliography
being used by Senator Jackson. The unit was Gray's "5412 Group" within the
administration, officially but secretly in charge of approving covert
action. Under Gray's guidance, Ike "|'was clear and firm in his response'
that Jackson's staff "not" be informed of the existence of this unit
[emphasis in the original]." / Note #2 / Note #0
On January 1, 1959, Fidel Castro took power in Cuba. Thereafter, in the
last Eisenhower years, with Castro as a target and universal pretext, the
fatal Cuban-vectored gangster section of the American government was
Several figures of the Eisenhower administration must be considered the
fathers of this permanent Covert Action monolith, men who continued
shepherding the monster after its birth in the Eisenhower era:
/ Note #b|"Gordon Gray", the shadowy Assistant to the President for
National Security Affairs, Prescott Bush's closest executive branch crony
and golf partner along with Eisenhower. By 1959-60, Gray had Ike's total
confidence and served as the Harrimanites' monitor on all U.S. military and
British intelligence agent Kim Philby defected to the Russians in 1963.
Philby had gained virtually total access to U.S. intelligence activities
beginning in 1949, as the British secret services' liaison to the
Harriman-dominated CIA. After Philby's defection, it seemed obvious that
the aristocratic British intelligence service was in fact a menace to the
western cause. In the 1960s, a small team of U.S. counterintelligence
specialists went to England to investigate the situation. They reported
back that the British secret service could be thoroughly trusted. The
leader of this "expert" team, Gordon Gray, was the head of the
counterespionage section of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory
Board (PFIAB) for Presidents Kennedy through Ford.
/ Note #b|"Robert Lovett," Bush's Jupiter Island neighbor and Brown
Brothers Harriman partner, from 1956 on a member of the President's Foreign
Intelligence Advisory Board. Lovett later claimed to have criticized --
from the "inside" -- the plan to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. Lovett was
asked to choose the cabinet for John Kennedy in 1961.
/ Note #b|"CIA Director Allen Dulles," Bush's former international
attorney. Kennedy fired Dulles after the Bay of Pigs invasion, but Dulles
served on the Warren Commission, which whitewashed President Kennedy's
/ Note #b|"C. Douglas Dillon," neighbor of Bush on Jupiter Island, became
undersecretary of state in 1958 after the death of John Foster Dulles.
Dillon had been John Foster Dulles's ambassador to France (1953-57),
coordinating the original U.S. covert backing for the French imperial
effort in Vietnam, with catastrophic results for the world. Dillon was
treasury secretary for both John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.
/ Note #b|"Ambassador to Britain Jock Whitney," extended family member of
the Harrimans and neighbor of Prescott Bush on Jupiter Island. Whitney set
up a press service in London called Forum World Features, which published
propaganda furnished directly by the CIA and the British intelligence
services. Beginning in 1961, Whitney was chairman of the British Empire's
"English Speaking Union."
/ Note #b|"Senator Prescott Bush," friend and counselor of President
Bush's term countinued on in the Senate after the Eisenhower years,
throughout most of the aborted Kennedy presidency.
In 1962, the National Strategy Information Center was founded by Prescott
Bush and his son Prescott, Jr., William Casey (the future CIA chief), and
Leo Cherne. The center came to be directed by Frank Barnett, former program
officer of the Bush family's Smith Richardson Foundation. The center
conduited funds to the London-based Forum World Features, for the
circulation of CIA-authored "news stories" to some 300 newspapers
internationally. / Note #2 / Note #1
"Democrat" Averell Harriman rotated back into official government in the
Kennedy administration. As assistant secretary and undersecretary of state,
Harriman helped push the United States into the Vietnam War. Harriman had
no post in the Eisenhower administration. Yet he was perhaps more than
anyone the leader and the glue for the incredible evil that was hatched by
the CIA in the final Eisenhower years: a half-public, half-private
Harrimanite army, never since demobilized, and increasingly associated with
the name of Bush.
Following the rise of Castro, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
contracted with the organization of Mafia boss Meyer Lansky to organize and
train assassination squads for use against the Cuban government. Among
those employed were John Rosselli, Santos Trafficante, and Sam Giancana.
Uncontested public documentation of these facts has been published by
congressional bodies and by leading Establishment academics. / Note #2 /
But the disturbing implications and later consequences of this engagement
are a crucial matter for further study by the citizens of every nation.
This much is established:
On August 18, 1960, President Eisenhower approved a $13 million official
budget for a secret CIA-run guerrilla war against Castro. It is known that
Vice President Richard M. Nixon took a hand in the promotion of this
initiative. The U.S. military was kept out of the covert action plans until
very late in the game.
The first of eight admitted assassination attempts against Castro took
place in 1960.
The program was, of course, a failure, if not a circus. The invasion of
Cuba by the CIA's anti-Castro exiles was put off until after John Kennedy
took over the presidency. As is well known, Kennedy balked at sending in
U.S. air cover and Castro's forces easily prevailed. But the progam
In 1960, Felix Rodriguez, Luis Posada Carriles, Rafael "Chi Chi" Quintero,
Frank Sturgis (or "Frank Fiorini") and other Florida-based Cuban exiles
were trained as killers and drug-traffickers in the Cuban initiative; their
supervisor was E. Howard Hunt. Their overall CIA boss was Miami station
chief Theodore G. Shackley, seconded by Thomas Clines. In later chapters we
will follow the subsequent careers of these characters -- increasingly
identified with George Bush -- through the Kennedy assassination, the
Watergate coup, and the Iran-Contra scandal.
1. Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, "The Wise Men": Six Friends and the
World They Made -- Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, McCloy" (New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), p. 377.
2. Reed was better known in high society as a minor diplomat, the founder
of the Triton Press and the president of the American Shakespeare Theater.
3. "Palm Beach Post," January 13, 1991.
4. For Lovett's residency there see Isaacson and Thomas, "op. cit.," p.
417. Some Jupiter Island residencies were verified by their inclusion in
the 1947 membership list of the Hobe Sound Yacht Club, in the Harriman
papers, Library of Congress; others were established from interviews with
long-time Jupiter Islanders.
5. Arthur Burr Darling, "The Central Intelligence Agency: An Instrument of
Government, to 1950", (College Station: Pennsylvania State University,
1990), p. 59.
6. The "Chicago Tribune", Feb 9, 1945, for example, warned of "Creation of
an all-powerful intelligence service to spy on the postwar world and to pry
into the lives of citizens at home. "Cf. Anthony Cave Brown, "Wild Bill
Donovan: The Last Hero", (New York: Times Books, 1982), p. 625, on warnings
to FDR about the British control of U.S. intelligence.
7. Dennis Eisenberg, Uri Dan, Eli Landau, "Meyer Lansky: Mogul of the Mob"
(New York: Paddington Press, 1979) pp. 227-28.
8. See John Ranelagh, "The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA", (New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1987), pp. 131-32.
9. Clark Clifford, "Counsel to the President" (New York: Random House, 1991).
10. Sidney Hyman, "The Life of William Benton" (Chicago: The University of
Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 438-41.
11. Phyllis Tilson Piotrow, "World Population Crisis: The United States
Response" (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973), "Forward" by George H.W.
Bush, p. vii.
12. Interview with Prescott Bush in the Oral History Research Project
conducted by Columbia University in 1966, Eisenhower Administration Part
II; pp. 62-4.
13. Herbert S. Parmet, "Eisenhower and the American Crusades" (New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1972), p. 14.
14. "New York Times", Sept. 6, 1952, Nov. 5, 1952, Nov. 7, 1956.
15. "New York Times", Aug. 21, 1956.
16. Parmet, op.
cit., p. 481.
17. John Prados, Keepers of the Keys: A History
the National Security Council from Truman to Bush (New
York: William Morrow, 1991) pp. 92-95.
18. Robert Callaghan in
Covert Action, No. 33,
Winter 1990. Prescott, Jr. was a board member of the
National Strategy Information Center as of 1991. Both
Prescott Sr. and Jr. were deeply involved along with Casey
in the circles of Pan American Airlines, Pan Am's owners
the Grace family, and the CIA's Latin American affairs.
The center, based in Washington, D.C., declines public
inquiries about its founding.
See also EIR Special Report:
`` American Leviathan:
Administrative Fascism under the Bush Regime '' (Wiesbaden,
Germany: Executive Intelligence Review Nachrichtenagentur,
April 1990), p. 192.
19. For example, see Trumbull Higgins,
Failure: Kennedy, Eisenhower, and the CIA at the Bay of
Pigs (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1987), pp. 55-56,
Unverified information on the squads is provided in
the affidavit of Daniel P. Sheehan, attorney for the
Christic Institute, reproduced in EIR Special Report:,
`` Project Democracy: The `Parallel Government' behind the
Iran-Contra Affair '' (Washington, D.C.: Executive
Intelligence Review, 1987), pp. 249-50.
Some of the hired
assassins have published their
memoirs. See, for example, Felix Rodriguez and John
Weisman, Secret Warrior (New York: Simon and Schuster,
1989); and E. Howard Hunt, Undercover: Memoirs of an
American Secret Agent (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons,
* McMahon had been Assistant U.S. Attorney
General, in charge of the Criminal Division, from 1935 to
1939. Was there a chance he might someday speak out about
the unpunished Nazi-era crimes of the wealthy
Previous Chapter Return to the Table of
Contents Next Chapter