How Secret Experiments May Have
Unleashed Cancer Causing Viruses

by Leonard Horowitz

The American people, along with the rest of the world’s population, have been under attack by insidious lethal enemies. Most people cannot perceive or conceive that shadow governors are engaged in hideous biological and chemical experiments on unwitting populations. Minority and ethnic groups especially at risk for toxic exposures, many being done in the name of “public health.”

The recent widescale spraying of malathion and Anvil, two known chemical carcinogens and immune system toxins, to allegedly prevent West Nile Virus attacks within several northeastern American states, is just one example of such “public health policy” based on no rational science. Most people are incapable of realising the scope and depth of such crimes against humanity. Perceiving, rather, their impotence in altering the course of history, and fearing the fight of a crusade, people rationalise their inefficacy or indifference in human terms – “Don’t tell me. That’s just the way it is. I can’t do anything about it anyway, so I’d rather not know.”

During the past two decades, at least six internationally known authorities advanced theories that the AIDS virus (HIV-1) was developed by biological weapons researchers, and either accidentally or intentionally transmitted it with the help of the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) and the United Nations World Health Organisation (WHO). A 1969 US military appropriations document obtained through the Freedom of Information Act called for $10 million for the development of AIDS-like viruses by 1975. In fact the National Academy of Sciences / National Research Council had informed the Department of Defense (DOD) that:

[I]t would probably be possible to make a new infective microorganism which could differ in certain important aspects from any known disease-causing organisms. Most important of these is that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease.

During the 1960s and early 1970s, these agencies, with help from the World Health Organisation (WHO), the (US) National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the Rockefeller and Alfred P. Sloan Foundations played leading roles in the development of cancer viruses for vaccine research and germ warfare. By 1969, the WHO had provided “prototype virus strains” for more than 592 virus laboratories in more than 35 different countries. That year, four of the most active centres, including the NCI and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), distributed 2,514 strains of viruses, 1888 ampoules of experimental vaccines, and about 100 samples of cell cultures throughout the WHO’s viral network. 70,000 virus isolations were reported by 1970, and many, cultured for further study, were breaking out of the laboratories that tested them.

In March of 1970, WHO consultants even reported the likelihood of massive cancer epidemics from such virus outbreaks. Such “biological agents,” they noted, “may be used... to achieve the simultaneous infection of key groups of people, and the military consequences might well be of major importance....” However, they warned of the “calculated risk that a virulent mutant might appear and spread rapidly to produce an uncontrollable epidemic on a large scale....”

These consultants also predicted that as a consequence of such biological attacks, “mass illnesses, deaths, and epidemics” would require the WHO and allied agencies to furnish supplies and personnel to deal with the resulting medical emergencies.

The first viruses and retroviruses used for cancer and biological weapons research passed through the NCI. Among the premier labs specifically researching, developing, and testing immune system destroying viruses was the Cell Tumor Biology Laboratory at the NCI. This was headed by Dr. Robert Gallo – the notorious alleged co-discoverer of the AIDS virus. To date it remains uncertain when Gallo discovered HIV. It was reported Gallo’s discovery followed the French Pasteur Institute’s Luc Montagnier’s discovery of LAV, an identical virus, in 1984, but new evidence suggests he may have genetically engineered the virus as early as 1970 along with biological weapons contractors at Litton Bionetics – a subsidiary of the mega-military weapons producer Litton Industries, Inc.

Dr. Gallo’s behaviour is, in fact, highly suspicious. As chronicled by bestselling deceased author Randy Shilts in And the Band Played On, and more recently by Eleanor Burkitt in The Gravest Show on Earth, Gallo’s collaborative efforts in search of the AIDS virus were deceitful and repugnant. The authors’ charged Gallo’s ego was largely responsible for delaying international progress in search of the AIDS virus. Following his alleged find, patents were filed on his and the NCI’s behalf keeping the French from sharing the royalties associated with the AIDS virus, its culture mediums, cell lines, experimental reagents, and tests associated with its discovery, diagnosis, and treatment. In an unprecedented act of politics and misplaced faith, Gallo was pardoned by President Bill Clinton in 1994 for several counts of misconduct and scientific fraud.

Gallo’s Research Anthology

Gallo’s early publications document his intimate association with Litton Bionetics – sixth on US Congress’s list of major Army biological weapons contractors for 1969. The literature describes a vast number of experiments in which Gallo and co-workers bioengineered simian monkey viruses, which were humanly benign, to cause a variety of cancers. In fact, Gallo’s focus was on the principle model used by cancer virus theorists between 1962 and 1972 during the NCI’s generously funded, yet largely secret, “Special Virus Cancer Program” – the leukemia-lymphoma-sarcoma complex. Leukemias and lymphomas, which were rare at that time, and Kaposis sarcoma, which was virtually nonexistent, are now the most common cancers associated with HIV infection.

During the early 1970s, Gallo’s teams extracted the nucleic acids from these harmless simian monkey viruses, infused their empty envelopes with cat leukemia RNA, along with chicken sarcoma RNA, to produce mutants that produced a laundry list of diseases as seen in AIDS patients today. In fact, to enable the virus to jump species, Gallo and Litton Bionetics researchers cultured these newly created germs in human white blood cells to alter their envelope characteristics. This altered the viruses’ envelop proteins and allowed the germs to attach to and move through human cell membranes, ultimately altering the cellular DNA – the blueprint of life. Most astonishing, in a 1970 publication of the National Academy of Sciences, Gallo and company celebrated these efforts by offering them to NATO’s military scientists for further investigation and testing.

HIV-1, HIV-2, and the “Big Bang”

Clearly, the mass of scientific evidence indicates the development of HIV-1, and its progenitor HIV-2, evolved during the early 1970s. Allegations that HIV had been found in tissues of people who died with AIDS-like diseases before that time have been scientifically and wholly debunked. According to Dr. Gerald Myers, chief molecular geneticist at the US government’s Los Alamos Laboratory, something major happened in the early 1970s to convert HIV-2, or similar simian viruses, into HIV-1. This could easily have resulted from Gallo and Bionetics experiments in which HIV-2-like viruses were cultured in human WBCs.

During the 1996 National AIDS conference in San Francisco, I asked Dr. Max Essex, Director of Harvard’s AIDS Institute, and co-discoverer of HIV-2 in West African women, an important question. “How, other than through vaccines, might HIV-2, a known simian monkey virus laboratory contaminant, not found in monkeys in the wild, come to be circulating in African women?” Vaccines, principally made from monkey serum extracts, and tainted by man-made monkey virus mutants, occurred to me to be the only plausible explanation.

Essex explained he did not know. He only informed me how his monkeys became contaminated. “Other researchers had inoculated them with human tissues [for various non-HIV related experiments] before they got to our lab,” he said. In other words, human experiments were again implicated. The question remained – how did African natives come by HIV-2 and HIV-1 infections in the first place?

Gallo’s speculation that the AIDS virus, like his earlier leukemia virus discovery, HTLV-1, naturally jumped species from African green monkey to man is far-fetched, if not totally absurd, especially in light of what was done in his and affiliated labs in Bethesda and Northwest Uganda to create human leukemia, sarcoma, and immune system destroying viruses. Clearly, these man-made creations most plausibly emerged from NCI and DOD affiliated laboratories. However, the question of accidental versus genocidal transmission remains.

Early Targeting of Minority America

As many as two-thirds of African Americans recently surveyed believe the AIDS epidemic may be genocide. Upon what evidence are such beliefs based? The targeting of gay and civil rights leaders and groups at home and abroad by the FBI and CIA during and after the McCarthy era is well documented. The gay rights movement was seen by American intelligence officials, such as J. Edgar Hoover, as communist inspired. Black nationalist groups and civil rights leaders like Dr. Martin Luther King were likewise considered communist beneficiaries.

During the late 1960s through the 1980s, the CIA worked to: 1) prevent the coalition of militant black nationalist groups and the beginning of a “true black revolution,” and 2) prevent the rise of a black “messiah.” 360 disruptive American intelligence operations developed under the Communist Counterintelligence Program (COINTELPRO) Black Nationalist Hate Group’s umbrella, including “Operation Chaos” which ran from 1968 until 1974. Dr. Henry Kissinger, as National Security Advisor, played a pivotal role in this program during the Nixon era, personally oversaw major CIA and FBI intelligence operations, and directed the military chiefs of staff to consider these perceived threats to national security and world economic order.

Only days after the DOD requisitioned $10 million from Congress to fund the development of AIDS-like viruses, on July 29, 1969, the House Republican committee, chaired by the Honorable George Bush of Texas, cited the urgent need for population control activities to fend off “a growing Third World crisis.” Indeed, there was extreme American displeasure with Black African culture and its growing socialist threat. Africa, particularly the resource wealthy central African nations, would not be allowed to fall under communist control. Thus, the roots of Third World foreign policy was established under Kissinger’s anticommunist direction.

During this period, President Nixon appealed for urgent action for population control. African economic, military, and “humanitarian” policies were shaped by Kissinger, Nixon, and later Jimmy Carter to force compliance with American economic and political objectives. Subsequent World Bank, NASA, and even National Academy of Sciences (NAS) activities in Africa expressed the imperialist philosophy. USAID and WHO sponsored immunisation programs in central Africa, likewise, reflected American intelligence interests, and were even used by CIA agents to infiltrate the region. The appointment of Dr. Henry Kissinger in 1968 as National Security Advisor – the most influential position in the Nixon White House – is noteworthy. Kissinger’s alternate was Mr. Roy Ash, the President of Litton Industries – among the world’s largest military weapons contractors, and parent company of the Army’s biological weapons contracting firm Litton Bionetics with whom Dr. Robert Gallo of the NCI worked.

Litton military contracts, during the first Nixon administration, exceeded $5 billion. Litton Bionetics received approximately $2 million a year during this time under one NCI contract entitled, “Investigations of Viral Carcinogenesis in Primates.” Another contract called for Bionetics to supply NCI researchers throughout the world with primates for cancer studies. At this same time, Congress supplied the DOD with the same allotment, $2 million a year, for AIDS-like virus development.

Gallo and Bionetics researchers John Landon and Robert Ting directed the NCI effort whose “proposed course” was the continuation of studies wherein “an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase [unique enzyme identical to the one found in human leukemia and AIDS viruses] similar to that associated with RNA tumour viruses... [would be] isolated, purified and concentrated 200-fold, making possible its further characterisation and study in relation to the leukemic process in man... with increased emphasis on monitoring and intensive care of inoculated animals to determine if active infection occurs, effects of infection, and degree of immunosuppression when used.” This was, of course, more than six years before Gallo’s alleged discovery of HTLV-1, and fourteen years before his alleged discovery of the AIDS virus. “Further studies of human neoplasms at [the] molecular level will continue,” the scientists wrote.

And though the researchers added, “inasmuch as tests for the biological activity of candidate human viruses will not be tested in the human species,” they clearly intended to develop “another system... for these determinations and, subsequently for the evaluation of vaccines or other measures of [cancer] control” in humans.

Kissinger’s Contributions

All of this occurred while Henry Kissinger controlled The Defense Program Review Committee, which considered the funding requests for military expenditures including biological weapons. Upon taking office as advisor for national security, Kissinger ordered Melvin Laird to reassess America’s biological weapons capabilities. His subsequent public urging of Nixon’s signing of the Geneva Accord, outlawing the use of biological weapons, contradicted his secret appropriations directives which guaranteed the CIA’s ability to stockpile biological weapons for covert operations as late as 1975, and likely beyond.

Between 1969 and 1976, Kissinger also directed the powerful 40 Committee that authorised covert actions by the CIA in Central Africa in the vicinity where AIDS and Ebola first broke out. Ebola initially struck a South African woman in 1975, and then several hundred people in southern Sudan and northern Zaire in 1976. AIDS, of course, was initially seen simultaneously in Central Africa and New York City in 1978.
Under Kissinger’s National Security Council directives, USAID began focusing vast resources on controlling Third World populations by the late 1960s. A computer search of “USAID” “Population Control,” “Vaccines,” and “World Health Organisation” literature between 1970 and 1975 revealed 733 “USAID-Population Control” studies. The same search after 1975 found none. The entire field of “Population Control” had vanished from view. The subject heading had been terminated and replaced with the more comforting “maternal and child health.”

A review of US Department of State Bulletins revealed that by 1976 Joseph Califano, who had advised Kissinger to appoint Alexander Haig as his White House assistant, took the lead in attacking “rapid population growth” in the Third World. His subsequent policies included the authorisation of USAID funds for Merck, Sharp & Dohme (MSD) – related hepatitis B vaccine studies in central Africa – studies that had actually begun cooperatively with Litton Bionetics researchers during their “investigation of viral carcinogenesis in primates.”

The paper trail, in the scientific literature, linking MSD investigators with Gallo and Bionetics researchers who conducted cancer virus and hepatitis B vaccine studies simultaneously in New York City and Central Africa between 1970 and 1974 is lengthy but clear. Through the New York City Blood Bank (NYCBB) and other biological weapons contractors at the New York University Medical Center (NYUMC), as early as 1969, that is, shortly after Kissinger became NSC director, high risk humans were inoculated with the first doses of experimental hepatitis B vaccine. Just as the NCI-Bionetics research team proposed would be their course of action, the new vaccine was composed of live and attenuated viruses that had only been tested on monkeys.
More astonishing, MSD researchers worked in cooperation with Gallo’s group at the NCI and Litton Bionetics, and combined, they conducted similar studies in Central Africa under US Army and USAID contracts. A “Drug Development Branch” of the NCI served as a conduit of experimental viruses, vaccines, and drugs between Gallo and company and MSD. Thus, the alleged channel through which HIV-tainted hepatitis B vaccines passed between the NCI, Bionetics, and MSD was operating by 1970.

At that time, besides hepatitis, massive multicomponent vaccine trials were underway in Central and West Africa. Twenty country immunisation programs supported by USAID, the CDC, the WHO and MSD tested for the first time several combined vaccines including measles, smallpox, and others. During this period, plans to prompt Congressional legislation freeing MSD and other vaccine producers from liability and costly litigation from personal injury claims related to immunisation were made. “Propaganda campaigns” were then initiated at home and abroad.

One document, discovered during this author’s search of the scientific literature, expressed a view among leading government scientists that race, socioeconomic status, concerns over “national security,” and the safety of the white middle class should be the principle motive behind Third World and domestic immunisation practices. “In the United States, the central cities will continue to seethe with immunisable diseases and thereby create a significant risk to other parts of the society until these people [‘Spanish-Americans and Negroes’] are regularly included in immunisation practice,” Dr. J. D. Millar from the CDC warned.

Other “Special Virus Cancer Program” reports published in 1971 and 1972 by the NCI were serendipitously discovered by the author in the basement of the government documents department at Davis Library, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. These books document that Litton Bionetics supplied all other NCI contractors, including those in New York City, with experimental monkeys, monkey viruses, monkey virus “hybrids” (that is, genetically altered monkey viruses), infected monkey tissues, cell lines, and other reagents needed to facilitate primate cancer studies and the development of vaccines. Only one percent of this entire program’s budget went towards assuring biohazard containment. This money was paid to Dow Chemical Company under a separate contract.

Despite Dow’s efforts, researchers working in New York City for MSD and the NYUMC, in 1974, reported “more than 70%” of their quarantined caged monkeys had been environmentally contaminated with hepatitis and other viruses. Yet, this did not stop these authorities from developing the first four lots of experimental hepatitis B vaccine that was used on the first human-guinea-pigs between 1970s and 1974 simultaneously in Central Africa and Manhattan.

Thus, all it might have taken was one monkey, infected by NCI researchers at Litton Bionetics’s laboratories, with an AIDS-like virus infection, or even its neighbour, to have spread the virus through the first hepatitis B vaccine lots “containing 200,000 human doses,” to cause the AIDS pandemic we have today.

The CIA and AIDS

In 1975, following a storm of public outrage over the CIA’s involvement in Watergate, the agency was investigated and chastised by the Rockefeller Commission and two Congressional committees.

That year, word had leaked from the Army’s “special,” that is, secret operations division at Fort Detrick, Maryland that the CIA was illegally storing stockpiles of deadly bacteria, viruses, and other toxins. As a result, a Select Committee To Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities met to investigate. Senator Frank Church presided.

The Church hearings exposed much about the illegal storage of biological weapons (BW) by the CIA, and their intended use in covert operations. Unfortunately, the American news media, focusing on a single neurotoxin purified from shellfish, failed to report the most incriminating facts. The CIA, according to director Bill Colby, planned to use its more lethal biologicals in “covert operations” as directed by the National Security Council, then directed by Henry Kissinger. Ultimately, the investigators and the media shielded Kissinger from the Church Committee’s indictments along with other chief decision makers.

In fact, the CIA’s BW operation began as early as 1947 with the agency’s metamorphosis from the OSS. Following the war, the CIA exfiltrated more than 900 Nazi scientists to America, including Hitler’s chief biological weapons developer Dr. Erich Traub. At that time, Kissinger, then in his late twenties, served as General Alexander Bolling’s chief translator. Bolling directed American intelligence at the time and was “Godfather” to the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), the agency that ran the Nazi exfiltration program – Project Paperclip.

Kissinger’s other intelligence assignments by 1948 included overseeing Nazi hunting efforts in more than twenty German towns, and instructing other intelligence officers in Nazi tracking tactics at the European Command Intelligence School in Oberammergau. Thus, I was not surprised to learn that the Defense Department’s request for funding a five-year AIDS-like virus development program, beginning in 1970, came when Kissinger oversaw the 40 Committee which authorised the budget and covert activities of the CIA. The AIDS-like viruses were readied by 1975.

History records that following the American forces withdrawal from Vietnam, Kissinger immediately focused anticommunist undertakings on the resource wealthy region of Central Africa. Zaire and its neighbours Angola and Sudan were specifically targeted. CIA Director William Colby’s 1975 Church Committee admission then that his agency’s interest in BW was for offensive uses during covert operations at the very time the CIA was secretly operating at full force in this region – ground zero for the AIDS and Ebola outbreaks – is noteworthy.

Nathan Gordon, Chief of the chemistry branch of the Technical Services Division of the CIA gave additional testimony of the agency’s possible use of extensive virus stockpiles to assistant intelligence agency scientists in their work on mass immunisation projects, vaccine development, and cancer research. This was precisely the work conducted by NCI contractors including Merck, Sharp & Dohme and Litton Bionetics in Bethesda and Northwest Uganda, and New York collaborators at the New York University Medical Center and the infamous New York Blood Bank – the source of more than 10,000 HIV infections among American hemophiliacs.

Moreover, Church Committee discussions focused on congressional testimony which documented that the CIA had, in fact, been receiving “deadly poison[s]” manufactured by the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) and delivered to Fort Detrick for use in human experiments and covert operations.
Additional 1977 hearings published in the Congressional Record note that “George W. Merck, of the prominent Merck pharmaceutical firm,” had been appointed by President Roosevelt, during World War II, Director of the War Research Service charged with overseeing America’s biological weapons industry.

The CIA in Africa

Between 1970 and 1975, Kissinger ordered the CIA to begin a major covert military operation against MPLA (communist bloc backed) “rebels” in Angola. Indebted by over $4.5 billion to the International Monetary Fund, Zaire, headed by President Mobutu – paradoxically regarded as one of the world’s richest men with “a personal fortune put at $2,939,200,000 [1984 estimate] banked in Switzerland” – was wooed by NATO allies during the 1970s to be a staging area for CIA backed, Portuguese, French, and South African, mercenaries. American corporate investment, notably in copper, aluminium, and diamonds, doubled following a 1970 visit by Mobutu to the United States. Major investors included Rockefeller’s Chase-Manhattan Bank. In 1975, however, Mobutu turned against NATO allies. He proclaimed his intention to nationalise foreign owned enterprises, and expelled the American ambassador. He ordered his military to arrest CIA agents, and placed some of them under death sentences.

The following year, in October 1976, the Ebola virus broke-out in fifty-five Zairian villages, first killing people who had received injections. Mobutu then ordered his army to seal off the Bumba Zone with roadblocks and shoot anyone trying to leave.
By the end of 1976, the Zairian leader had reconciled his differences with American intelligence and, thereafter, continued to reap his Western allies’ economic and “humanitarian” aid.

About the same time, Mobutu signed an agreement with a West German company named OTRAG (Orbital Transport-und Raketen-Aktiengesellschaft). The company leased 260,000 square kilometres of eastern Zaire for military/industrial purposes. The contract gave OTRAG sovereign rights to territories inhabited by 760,000 people in the region not far from what is now called, “The AIDS Highway.”

Believed to be of military and intelligence gathering significance to NATO, OTRAG’s principals included several Nazi scientists including Dr. Kurt H. Debus, who worked as director of the Cape Canaveral space program until 1975 before transferring to Zaire. Richard Gompertz, OTRAG’s technical director, presided over NASA’s Chrysler space division. Lutz Thilo Kayser, OTRAG’s founder and manager, when young was quite close to the Nazi rocket industry, often called ‘Dadieu’s young man,’ a reference to Armin Dadieu, his mentor, who served as prominent SS officer and as Goring’s special representative for a research program on storing uranium.

In 1977, at the height of OTRAG’s activity in Zaire, Litton Industries, Bionetics’s parent, received $5 million for medical electronic equipment from its Hellige division, in Freiburg, West Germany. Much of Litton’s NATO and West German sales during this period appear to have been earmarked for OTRAG, which may have been subcontracting at the behest of the DOD through Bionetics.

Concurrently, cooperative efforts were recorded by NATO and WHO officials to coordinate preparations for facing possible epidemics from biological warfare.
These circumstances deserve further investigation especially considering the recent outbreaks of the world’s most feared and deadly viruses. Marburg, Ebola, Reston, and AIDS share the dubious distinction of breaking out in or around areas of CIA/NATO, Bionetics, or OTRAG operations.

The CIA and The Hot Zone

The Hot Zone, the alleged “terrifying true story,” that remained on the New York Times best-seller list for more than two years, was certainly frightening. Its content, however, when measured against government documents and scientific reports, was barely true. Few realise its author, Richard Preston, received a $20,000 literary grant from the Sloan Foundation to produce this Random House act of counterintelligence.

An investigation into Alfred P. Sloan’s background revealed his foundation: (1) supported black educational initiatives consistent with the CIA’s COINTELPRO Black Nationalist Hate Group campaign; (2) administered “public management” research and mass-media-public-persuasion experiments completely consistent with the CIA’s Project MKULTRA; (3) funded much of the earliest cancer research involving the genetic engineering of mutant viruses; (4) funded population control studies by Planned Parenthood-World Population, New York; (5) funded the Community Blood Council of Greater New York, Inc., the “council of doctors” who established the nefarious New York City Blood Bank; (6) maintained Laurance S. Rockefeller, the director of the Community Blood Council of Greater New York and the president of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, as chairman of the board of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and a trustee for the Foundation; (7) gave in excess of $20,000 annually to the Council on Foreign Relations; and (8) maintained among its “marketable securities,” 16,505 shares of Chase Manhattan Bank stock (in 1967) along with 24,400-53,000 shares issued by Merck & Co., Inc. (at least until 1973).

In addition, Sloan researchers contributed various reagents to the NCI’s Dr. Robert Gallo during his early retrovirus research, and Sloan is well known for its links to the AIDS pharmaceutical industry.

Could it be that the individuals and institutions most likely to have created HIV and its relatives are now the ones most capitalising on its effects? Surely the AIDS pandemic is big business. In the words of Alfred P. Sloan, “ignorance of the principles of capitalism and free enterprise is both a danger and an opportunity.” Undoubtedly, the millions of HIV/AIDS patients and their families will find it harder than the Sloans to appreciate the opportunity.

Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H. is an internationally known authority in public health education, a Harvard graduate and independent researcher, and one of healthcare’s most captivating motivational speakers. This article is based on Dr. Horowitz’s book Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola – Nature, Accident or Intentional?

© Copyright 2004 by New Dawn Magazine and the respective authors.

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