Burroughs also wrote three additional novellas along similar lines, The Moon Maid ( Argosy Weekly, 1923), The Moon Men, (All-Story, 1925 ) and The Red Hawk (All-Story, 1925). These are set in the hollow interior of the moon, and are a fun read, but are somewhat more fanciful than the Pellucidar series. The Pellucidar books are amazing in that they are the first works of fiction to fully integrate modern ideas and theories about the Hollow Earth--i.e., the Earth as a geode-like structure--with the reptilian archetypes which have haunted the underworlds of the human mind throughout the centuries.
Other notable mentions of Hollow Moon stories are those of H.G. Wells (The First Men in the Moon, London, 1901, and McFarland & Co., 1998.) and Everil Worrell (The Hollow Moon, Weird Tales, May, 1939). Additional books of interest which touch on "amphibian (reptilian-galatur) humanoid" and "Aryan/Ascended Master" themes are Etidorpha (John Uri Lloyd, Dodd, Mead, & Co., 1901) and The Coming Race (Edward Bulwer Lytton, Routledge & Sons, 1871). Another book, The Smokey God (Willis George Emerson, Forbes & Co., 1908), purports to be a true account of a father and son who were sucked into the polar opening at the top of the Earth, and were the unwilling guests of a race of "Nordic" or "Aryan" giants, who more closely resemble descriptions of the Norse Gods and their Jotun enemies than anything else.
So what do we have so far, if we combine folk traditions, mythological and religious traditions, and literary constructions? At first glance, it might seem disparate at best, but the inhabitants of the various underworlds remain surprisingly consistent in their general forms and dispositions, when examined more closely. We can start with a basic look at their physical and other attributes:
1. They are more or less reptilian, sometimes mostly human, sometimes very scaly indeed. Others, perhaps the result of liaison or gene-mixing with surface humans, are described as "fair," "nordic," or "Aryan." The true origins or identity of the latter are generally betrayed by some inherent flaw of form or behavior.
2. They are telepathic, hypnotic, or possessed of other "superior" mental powers.
3. They can create "glamour" or illusion, either as faeries, or as shapeshifters.
4. They possess superior technologies, including cloning and genetic engineering, in some instances manufacturing artificial lifeforms to do their bidding. Some of their servants are often humanoid and hairy, others are scaled or even winged, most are bipedal and anthropomorphic. They possess the secret of immortality, or the formula for extreme longevity. Some possess the power of flight as well, via either aircraft or by self-propelled means.
5. They are interested in human reproduction and interbreeding, or in reproduction in general. Reproductive survival seems to be essential to their agenda in nearly any given scenario. They need human flesh, or blood, or reproductive materials.
6. They are more often than not the enemies of mankind.
7. They do not like the light of the exterior sun (Sol). As a general rule, they cannot survive for long, or sometimes at all, in the surface world.
8. They are banished, exiled, imprisoned, lost, or in hiding from the surface world, or from the sun.
9. They are secretive about their entrances and their treasures or knowledge, as well as their true nature or identity.
10. They influence human events or circumstances whenever it suits their purpose, or appeals to their whims.
11. They have surface humans in their employ, through priesthoods, cults, or secret societies.
12. And not touched upon thus far, but prevalent in most underworld traditions, is the strange fact that they are often accompanied by unpleasant or noxious odors, described as "sulphur and brimstone," "sulphurous," or "like rotten eggs." This is the smell of hydrogen sulfide, a very real chemical compound which is found in great quantities deep within the Earth. This will be explored further as well.
With all of these things in mind, we must now move to a region somewhere in the twilight of folklore, in a gray area which overlaps myth, fiction, and reality, in order to gain a clearer understanding of the inspiration for, or result of, the archetypes which have been clarified to this point.
With the advent of the "scientific century," i.e., the twentieth, occurrences which would have in earlier times been deemed "magical," demonic, or the work of faeries, gods, or witches, were given descriptions or names which downplayed their inexplicable nature and sought to somehow fit them into a comprehensible, "modern" worldview. The problem was then, and continues at present to be, that such anomalous phenomena have defied the most rational, skeptical, and "scientific" explanations. Also termed "Fortean" events, after anomaly researcher and writer, Charles Fort, these occurrences have continually thrown a philosophical monkey-wrench into the cherished machinery of scientific dogma. In other words, science has no explanation for these events or discoveries, so it largely ignores, ridicules, or dismisses them out of hand.
There is no doubt that many of these phenomena are genuine, and are for now beyond the ability of the currently dominant belief-system, Science, to explain. This brings to the fore the first category of research which may tie in very closely with "what has gone before."
"Cryptozoology" is a term which was coined by Belgian biologist Bernard Heuvelmans, in order to designate a field of study which is concerned with unknown creatures or animals, which are also referred to as "Cryptids" ("hidden" animals). For the purposes of this study, the term cryptid will not be used to designate known or suspected known animals which are simply "out of place" or out of their customary environment. It will be reserved for those creatures which are truly "unknown."
The comings and goings of such creatures, their sudden appearances in remote, rural, or densely-populated areas, and their equally-sudden disappearances with scarcely a trace left behind, have long befuddled researchers in the field of cryptozoology. With a careful examination of specific unknown animals or entities and their habitats, interesting connections to the ancient traditions are revealed.
Many freshwater lakes around the world have long-standing traditions of "lake monsters" of various types, ranging from humped to sinuous, scaled or plated, to sporting "elephant-like" hide and "horselike" manes of hair. Most such creatures appear sporadically, often in high mountain lakes or large isolated lakes of great depth, with little or no access to the sea. Questions which have yet to be answered include:
1. How do such creatures maintain a breeding population of sufficient numbers to provide genetic diversity in relatively closed environments?
2. How do these populations manage to both feed themselves and maintain a high core temperature, their bodies being of immense size, and in usually cold waters with limited food resources?
3. What is the relationship of "lake monsters" to "sea serpents?"
4. If migratory, how do large populations of such creatures travel from lake to lake, or from lake to ocean, and ocean to lake?
Without a doubt, the most well-known of such beasts is the "monster" of Loch Ness, a large, deep lake in the Highlands of Scotland. Loch Ness is connected to the sea by the River Ness, yet sightings have only very rarely taken place in or at the river. The loch itself, like many in Scotland, Ireland, Scandinavia, and North America, has a long-standing tradition and reputation for being haunted by "kelpies," or shape-shifting, horse-headed, serpentine entities. These creatures are often described as having horse-like heads and manes, long serpentine necks, and huge, humped bodies with four flippers. Given the frigid water conditions at the loch (42 degrees Fahrenheit, on average), and the mammalian characteristics of the creatures, it stands to reason that they are either mammals, or some sort of endothermic (warm-blooded) plesiosaur descendants, or dinosaur descendants (many of the theropod dinosaurs were endothermic, as are their descendants, the birds). Given the additional fact that they sometimes sport horns or "ossicorns" like those of a giraffe, the mammalian hypothesis (descendants of zeuglodons, which were "primitive whales?) may be the best bet.
The questions of where they originate, where they go when they vanish, and how they maintain a stable diet, still remain. A look at the structure of Loch Ness provides some clues.
It has been determined that at some point in the distant past, Loch Ness was an arm of the sea. Now, it is seldom less than 300 feet deep, and routinely surpasses 400 feet in depth. The bottom of the lake runs up in many instances to meet underwater cliffs, and the submerged sides of the mountains which surround the loch. Sonar has indicated that the bases of these cliffs are honeycombed in places with very large caverns, which are of undetermined depth or extent. Could these lead to even more vast underground caverns under the mountains, some containing air and eventually linking to other lakes and to the sea? It would certainly provide a feasible explanation for the mysterious movements and disappearances of these creatures, and perhaps to the question of their diet, which may be also that of an ocean-going animal, or "sea-serpent." Perhaps the lakes and lochs which boast of such creatures, around the world, are simply places to breed and spawn in relative safety from the large predators of the oceans. When it is taken into account that many other "vortex-haunted" lakes around the world have been found to have deep caverns which account for their "vortices" (created by the suction of even larger, water-filled caverns, and the movement of huge volumes of water), the whole matter shifts into perspective. Such vortex-sporting, cavern-hiding lakes include Lake St. Jean and Blue Sea Lake in Canada (the latter home to Misiganebic, a "horse-headed" dragon), as well as Pohenegamook, Massawippa, Memphremagog, and on and on. Loch Ness and the Walchensee in Bavaria, among others, are said to connect to the sea in similar fashion. Given the distance of some of these bodies of water from the ocean, it is not unreasonable to assume that many deep aquifers are actually tributaries or parts of vast, subterranean oceans of freshwater, which may now be in danger of depletion by human usage from the surface.
Is there a connection between the reptilian-yet-mammalian "dragons" of large cold lakes, and vast cavern systems that may lie beneath them? The evidence would seem to indicate that this is the case. The cryptid dragon, with his underground lairs and underwater entrances to them, is apparently as active and secretive as the Chinese and Japanese versions ever were.
Many eyewitness accounts of hair-covered humanoids have been reported and documented over the years, by people from a wide range of backgrounds and professions. While Bigfoot or Sasquatch is the type whose description is known to most people, perhaps equalled by the Yeti of the Himalayas (the "Abominable Snowman"), the literature would indicate that not only are these living, flesh-and-blood creatures, but they come in a wide variety of physical configurations. Yet like the lake monsters, they seem to "pop in and out" of our surface world reality, and are amazingly difficult to track for creatures so large.
In addition to the towering, hirsute bigfoot form, witnesses have reported stunted, clawed versions with savage dispositions; black, "winged" varieties (the "ixals" of Mexico); screeching horrors with shaggy, hair-covered faces; gigantic varieties which would dwarf Sasquatch (like the Yeren of China), and more. In addition to the "rotten egg" or "skunk-like" odor which often accompanies most of these forms (as it does both Bigfoot and the Shampe of the Choctaw Indians, or the Florida "skunk ape"), many sightings and encounters have taken place in or near caves or cavernous regions, and abandoned mines and other man-made tunnels or potential entrances to unknown, underground areas. Consider the underworld-exploring Enkidu, the hell-plumbing Chinese "Monkey," hairy Scandinavian trolls, and the fanged, baboon- or dog-headed monsters of Sumer, Egypt and other cultures, and a connection again becomes clear. These creatures come out into our world, usually by night, and then retreat into an "invisible" cavern or subterranean world about which only they know, vanishing "without a trace." This does not have a connotation of the supernatural, but has the connotation of a natural phenomenon, and is a logical conclusion. Not only does this indicate an underworld connection, but it also indicates an intelligent "covering of tracks" and of evidence which is beyond that of ordinary animals, and can only be equated to the premeditated and well-planned actions of human beings--or of something at least as clever. It also begs the question of, at some level, possible human involvement of a covert nature, in not only "hairy humanoid" matters, but in other, more bizarre, cryptid accounts. And disinformation--in the form of ridicule, evidence-tampering, or intentional hoaxing--may also come into play at times. If this does occur, it does not automatically disqualify the phenonmenon as a genuine one. It only complicates matters by introducing what may be the intended element into the equation, that element being obfuscation.
Puerto Rico is a small island, only about 150 miles long by 45 miles wide; yet it has experienced enough paranormal and cryptid activity in its history to be a continent. The native Taino, an Arawak tribe of the West Indies, feared creatures like the Araidai (jungle goblin) and Konokokuyuha, a type of evil dwarf. The island has long been a haunt of hairy humanoids, mysterious winged creatures (some described as "pterodactyls"), and Unidentified Flying Objects, with the entire human populations in some areas at times living in terror.
During 1975, Puerto Rico was stricken by a mysterious wave of livestock mutilations, accompanied by UFO sightings. Many times animals were drained of blood and left like emptied wine-skins for investigators to puzzle over. Twenty years later, in 1995, things turned really weird.
The mutilations and blood-drainings returned with a vengeance, and over a two-year period, the "culprit" was seen or encountered first-hand by dozens of witnesses. Termed "El Chupacabras," or "The Goat-Sucker," the creature seemed like something out of a cartoonist's nightmare: Described as four to five feet tall, generally reptilian in appearance, with a kangaroo-like hip- or haunch-structure, spines along a back-ridge, and a humanoid head with protruding, incandescent eyes reminiscent of descriptions of the "gray aliens" of UFOlogy. Sometimes the creatures would be gray-green and hairless, sometimes they would have flat black or gray fur. With folding flaps of skin under their arms which connected to their ribcages, they could purportedly glide like flying squirrels, or fly outright, and they had three-pronged, retractable mouth-organs used for slicing, dicing, and sucking blood and fluids. At first it was thought that the sightings were surely an elaborate hoax, or simply hysteria, until the sheer number of incidents and reports reached overwhelming proportions. Hair was obtained from one mutilation site, and analyzed by a Japanese lab; while deemed to be "similar to the hair of a wolf," it was labeled as coming from an animal which was "unknown."
The creature was a typical cryptid in some respects, seemingly popping in and out of existence at a moment's notice, and generating fear and confusion all over the island. From Puerto Rico, the Chupacabras events quickly spread to the rest of Latin America, including Mexico, South Florida, and the desert southwest of the United States. This marked it as a distinctly cultural phenomenon (Hispanic), but that by no means indicates that it was not genuinely taking place. A connection was soon suspected in Puerto Rico between El Chupacabras and the mountainous, rainforested region of El Yunque, which is honey-combed with mostly-unexplored cavern systems. In fact, caverns underlie much of the island. Several witnesses reported seeing the creature or creatures fleeing to the El Yunque region, when discovered or pursued. Soon, other parts of the Spanish-speaking world were reaching similar conclusions. And, like the demons of old, an acrid, debilitating foul odor often accompanied the visits of the beast.
One brave soul, Jesus Sanchez, was victimized repeatedly, his rabbits being drained of blood. Finally, at four in the morning, he surprised the invader by blinding it with a bright light. When it rushed to escape, he struck it with a machete, only to discover that "the blow sounded as if it had hit a drum." The creature, unscathed, made its disappearance as usual.
What is to be made of a report like this? How can a creature both "have hair," yet "sound like a drum" when struck (or shot, for that matter), and escape unharmed? Why the almost methodical and indeed selective nature of the animal mutilations? Sometimes only blood was taken; other times, specific organs like livers would be missing. It should be noted that blood and the "meaty organs" were the very items offered to the dark gods of antiquity, in the ancient Middle East and even in Pre-Columbian America. The description of El Chupacabras is very reminiscent of that of the Sumerian Utukku, or even of the Gala, and of the Egyptian Ushabtiu, designated as "artificial" lifeforms (yet no less alive) created to do the bidding of the lords of the underworld. Maybe times are tough in the subterranean realms, and the "gods" have taken to stealing the substances which are no longer offered to them; or could it be that the Nagas are coming out to play?
The Utukku are reptilian in aspect, vaguely humanoid, and slightly "winged," just like El Chupacabras. Again we are reminded of the chimerical, genetic hybrids mentioned in the books of Enoch, which were created by the Nefilim (the Sumerian Annunaki and Igigi) before the deluge, when they "sinned against birds, wild animals, reptiles, and fish," creating hybrid creatures to serve them. These monstrosities also terrorized mankind--as the people of Puerto Rico might verify! Perhaps, instead of "looking skyward" for "alien invaders," we should start looking downward, for ancient parasites which are more or less native to our planet.
Creature similar to El Chupacabras have been seen around the world, ranging in description from reptilian humanoids (the "Loveland Frog," "Lizard Man," etc.); "little people" of a wide variety of descriptions; bulbous-headed and bug-eyed, stick-thin gray humanoids; and winged anthropomorphic forms. Such appearances, or periods of intense "cryptid" or "alien" activity, are often hallmarked by animal mutilations which involve precise (even surgically-precise), selective organ removals and blood-draining--or else mass disappearances of pets and livestock. These sightings cannot all be dismissed as hallucinations or hoaxes, particularly the sighting reports which consist of several witnesses' testimony. The sheer number of sightings is too great to be so easily dismissed, and the number of unexplained animal mutilations and disappearances which correspond with these "flaps" would seem to support this. Sometimes these creatures are confronted with violent force, yet almost always they resound "as if hollow," and are otherwise impervious to human weaponry, as in the case of the "Hopkinsville Goblins" of Kentucky, which were shot by the witnesses. "Mothman" of West Virginia, a tall, winged humanoid who haunted the region of Point Pleasant, particularly an old military storage area which had "underground bunkers," made mechanical, whirring sounds as it flew, and did not flap its wings at all. The now-ubiquitous "gray aliens" have been described as "mechanical" in their motions, moving "stiffly" or "jerkily." This will be examined again shortly, but all of these beg an obvious question.
Are all of these "creatures" simply different makes and models of "utukku" or "galatur?" Are they the "golems" and the "ushabtiu" of old, and are they completely mechanical and artificially-intelligent--or are they a melding of living genetics and non-living technology? Human beings are only now starting to create such technologies, but they do exist. What technology might be amassed through a simple cumulative process by an earlier, prehuman civilized species, with hundreds of thousands, or even millions of years of history behind it?
The entity known as Mothman, whose reign of terror lasted for thirteen months during 1967 and 1968 (as chronicled so well by John A. Keel, in The Mothman Prophecies ), made his visits to West Virginia, which it should be noted is one of the most densely-cavernous areas of North America. So is Kentucky, for that matter, where the Hopkinsville "UFO" entities were encountered. The same can be said of many areas of New England, which as a region has been the haunt of "the Dover Demon, (a term coined by cryptozoologist Loren Coleman)," "lizard men," hairy humanoids, "mad gassers" of reptilian aspect, and a host of other creepy visitors. The New England region is also the location of the "Morehedmoodus" area, near East Haddam, Connecticut; in this area the ground shakes and roars within, as if with "underground tempests," or as if titanic subterranean machinery is at work. This noisy and disconcerting phenomenon is known as "the Moodus Noises," and it has yet to be explained by mainstream science, government, or anyone else with a room-full of Ph.Ds. And of course, neither West Virginia nor New England are excessively far removed from another region which is famed for a distinctive "cryptid," "demon," or "creature:" between both is the Pine Barrens region of New Jersey, home of the infamous "Jersey Devil." This creature not only shares some of the physical characteristics of El Chupacabras and Mothman, but in many accounts resembles the winged reptilian forms of the Sumerian utukku, a dragon, or a medieval cockatrice or basilisk.
With their elusive dispositions, similar characteristics (among their "group," as well as with ancient forms), and nasty habit of collecting organs, blood, or genetic material--not to mention a general aversion to bright daylight or other bright lights, more often than not--the cryptid and "monster" scenario is brought into sharper focus. This multitude of beings is not from "elsewhere;" the odds for that are simply too great, given the variety of forms encountered, and taking into account the already-considerable genetic diversity that we know about which has sprung from the biosphere of the Earth. The scientific principle known as "Occam's Razor" would indicate that, given the choice between a staggering variety of beings from a staggering variety of worlds lost in interstellar space, or a naturally (or even artificially) diverse variety of lifeforms which have sprung from one ecological system, (hence, for instance, the mostly-bipedal, two-handed, two-legged, two-winged, four-flippered configurations, all variations on the earthly vertebrate template), the latter would have to be the most rational and logical choice for a theory of origin. No, they are coming and going at will from some place very near at hand, and the circumstantial evidence would seem to indicate that place to be the hidden bowels of our own planet.
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