by Wm. Michael Mott
(c) 2000, Wm. Michael Mott



In December, 1943, the pulp magazine Amazing Stories opened a can of worms that would eventually grow into a controversial storm of accusations, ridicule, denial, and resentment. An unknown welder named Richard S. Shaver told the world a story which sounded like a blend of paranoid-schizophrenic delusions, hallucinations, and bad science fiction. Working with the "assistance" of Ray Palmer, Amazing Stories' editor, Shaver began to tell his allegedly "true" tales of deep cavern-civilizations, genetically-degenerated, technologically-advanced troglodytes, and an ancient high-technology which gave these beings amazing powers over the unsuspecting inhabitants of the surface world.

Strangely, in addition to their "death-ray (laser or electromagnetic weapon)," "thought-ray (telepathy)," and illusion (holographic) "mech," or machines, these new incarnations of the "deep dweller" concept also had silent, flying ships which Shaver described as "disks," which were kept hangared beneath the Earth's surface, and were used regularly. This was five years before Kenneth Arnold's famous "first" sighting of nine objects over Mt. Ranier in Washington State, objects which he referred to "saucer-like," hence inadvertently helping to coin the modern term "flying saucer." Additionally, the troglodytes could produce "solid illusions" of creatures or objects, even of their disk-like craft, which were temporarily physical, then dissipated or were "turned off." How many times have UFOs just "disappeared" from radar screens around the world?

Shaver's underworld was inhabited by two ancient races which had originally been one, which he termed "dero," for "detrimental robot ("degenerate" would have been more accurate)," and "tero," for "integrative energy robot (the "good guys")." According to the welder-turned-writer, he had not only been contacted and tormented by the beams of these beings, but he had been "helped" by the tero in defeating the assaults of the dero, and had actually been in the cavern-world himself. Readers responded to his accounts in two ways: they either reviled and ridiculed him and his "underworld," which was often depicted as sexually and violently brutal; or they wrote in with letters of support and accounts of their own, in an effort to corroborate his stories! Ultimately, the "Shaver Mystery," as it was called, drove Ray Palmer from Amazing Stories and into business for himself, and generated an uproar (and an income) for both he and Shaver that would last, to some degree, until both of their deaths in the 1970s.

Was Richard Shaver unbalanced and delusional, or was he simply a talented and outrageous storyteller? Or was he telling stories which were half-truth, half-confabulation? In his youth he had spent some time in a mental hospital, which generated contempt and ridicule from others throughout his life; but would not actual, repeated contact by such beings as his "dero" push even a strong mind over the edge and into partial delusion? "Confabulation" is one common reaction which the human mind uses as a defense mechanism, when it is hiding a traumatic event from full recollection.

Regardless of the proportion of truth to fantasy in his accounts, Shaver's choice of words to describe his tormentors--"robots--" is interesting. While "fleshly" and possessed of animalistic lusts, the dero and tero are nevertheless "programmed," victims to a greater or lesser degree of "harmful" or "de" (destructive, degenerate, etc., according to Shaver) thinking. He attributed the degeneration of the subterraneans to damaging solar and cosmic radiation (from which they still hide underground), and to the destructive radiations of their own "stim" (sexual and other stimulation) machines. They kidnap surface humans, particularly women, for sexual pleasure (or procreation?), eat human beings, and take great delight in causing mayhem, destruction, confusion, and terrifying apparitions (holograms) in the surface world.

As an aside and interjection, Shaver's claims of the abilities of dero machinery would explain many additional mysteries which have not been examined here so far. To touch on just one example would be to examine the case of the Bell Witch of Robertson County, Tennessee, a malevolent and violent entity which terrorized a family in the early 1800s. The "Bell Witch," so-called because "she" haunted the Bell family, went to great lengths to create the illusion that she was omnipresent and omniscient, although she was fooled and eluded upon several occasions by her victims. At first beginning with standard "poltergeist" activities, the "spirit" worked its way up to invisibly-dealt physical blows and attacks, and throughout the ordeal which spanned many years, spoke to, sang for, and reviled the Bell family. The activities of this entity were witnesses by hundreds of people, including Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States. Only now, in our "modern" age, is it noticed that at first the "voice" of the "witch" was booming, hollow and metallic, only later and after considerable practice taking on a regular, well-modulated tone; and the origin of the thing was said to be in the "Bell Witch Cave," a deep and mostly uncharted cavern system that was at that time on the Bell family property. The "Witch" itself claimed that the cave was its home, and forbade anyone to enter there. Local Native Americans had shunned the cave and surrounding land as haunted or cursed, long before the first white settlers arrived. To this day, witnesses swear that the still-unplumbed cavern system is haunted and even guarded by the same evil being.

A terrible story, indeed, and sure to engender fear and foreboding--perhaps the perfect type of story to make certain that a short and direct route to some underworld lair, loaded with "special effects" equipment or "mech," is not tried or violated....Spelunkers and other brave souls have yet to seriously attempt to explore the deep cavern system called "The Bell Witch Cave." It looks like the project may have achieved its desired goal of keeping people out, after all.

As evidence of his obsession with proving the veracity of his stories, Richard S. Shaver was one of the few "contactees" by "alien" or nonhuman forces to make an effort to produce physical evidence. He claimed that many rocks and boulders in specific regions around the world are actually great, shattered libraries of ancient crystals, containing three-dimensional images, or hologram-records. To prove this point, in later years he took to finding such "picture rocks" and cutting them open with a rock-saw, to reveal what he said were glimpses of the ancient records. He would use paint to accentuate or "bring out" these images, but only worked along the edges or strata of shapes which were pre-existing. Some of his "picture rocks" were in fact quite startling, depicting humans or human-like beings, human-animal hybrids, giants, and humans battling with creatures which look suspiciously like nagas, El Chupacabras, or something similar. In 1975, Ray Palmer featured many of these pictures, along with Shaver's commentaries, in The Secret World.

The forms described by Shaver should be familiar by now. The dero--dark elves, or trolls, or nagas, or utukku/ushabtiu--and the tero--the "noble faeries," Tuatha de Danaan, or "Aryan/Nordic Masters--" have simply manifested in a more contemporary, pseudo-scientific form. The naga "vimana" disk-craft are present, and the abduction and genetic rape motif of all underworld goblins/faeries/nagas is present as well. The "treasure of the Nibelungs," or the hoarded wealth of dragons, has been replaced by ancient and super-scientific "mech," a technology which bestows godlike powers upon its owners. And like the trolls, goblins, vampires, and the rest of the ages-old underworld crew, these subterranean beings are in hiding from the sun, living in mole-like terror of its direct rays. A relationship between Shaver's underworld inhabitants, and those of the past, is hopefully not so much literal and based in some terrible reality, as it is archetypal and obvious.


The final three decades of the twentieth century have been filled with rumors: conspiracy theories about alien abductions, plots for world domination shared between aliens and "secret government," illuminati cabals, and the like. Several interesting variations on age-old theories have permeated the field of UFOlogy and conspiracy literature alike, and in many places the two have overlapped and in fact become completely blurred into one. It is these latter areas which are of particular interest and significance to the study at hand.

One of the most commonly-reported manifestations of "alien invaders" are the "ebe (extraterrestrial biological entities)" type, commonly called the "grays." These beings are the variety most-often reported in abduction accounts; and they are highly ectomorphic, with scrawny, underdeveloped limbs and bodies, oversized heads, and extraordinarily-large, black eyes (some abductees have reported these to be actually "reptilian" or "birdlike" eyes with slit pupils, the "blackness" only a protective artificial film, like sunglasses). They are from three to five feet in height, averaging around four feet tall. Again, their very physiology gives away their origins, for large, protruding eyes, with large slit pupils and needing an artificial protective covering, would be hard to equate with a race which has mastered, and perhaps been genetically-prepared for, interplanetary or interstellar travel. Outer Space is an extremely bright, radiation-filled environment. The type of eyes described are those of a creature which spends most of its time in the darkness, as they are designed for optimum light-reception; and the shaded coverings, for venturing out into the surface world, are really self-explanatory. Similarly, their bodies, small and easily-maneuverable through tight spaces, with small surface area and a minimum of body-weight, are ideal for an underground environment. Their method of locomotion, generally described as "shuffling," and "hips moving strangely" or "sideways," is another indication that they have developed in a relatively cramped place, or even one where tunnels are commonplace. They are often described as smelling "musty," "like a snake," or "like rotten eggs."

This type of entity allegedly abducts unfortunate human beings, conducts medical or genetic testing on them, sometime removing sperm and ova for use in "hybridization experiments," or for purposes unknown. The abductions almost always take place under cover of darkness (doubly-helpful to the molesters, since the "harmful" sun has set, and people are drowsy, or asleep). The victim is taken into a UFO (usually disk-shaped, or shaped like a child's spinning-top) for experimentation, and also for a form of indoctrination, consisting of intense three-dimensional audio-visual presentations. The primary message of these presentations seems to deal with a concern over human destruction of the Earth's biosphere and biodiversity (recall the recurrent "faerie" interest in the same thing--a steady supply of genetic materials). This becomes even more telling when it is recalled that the first underground atomic tests were concurrent with the resurgence of "witnessed activity" of UFOs on a previously unprecedented scale--Those tests may have rattled more than a few windows in the desert! During the medical aspect of the abduction, local anesthetics are seldom if ever used, and the victim is left with a type of post-traumatic stress syndrome which is at first marked by amnesia and mental distress or unease, sometimes followed by nightmares, self-imposed social isolation, and eventually a total recall of the experience, either through natural recovery of memory, or through hypnotic regression therapy.

Other common themes emerge as well. The entities are described by their victims as "drone-like," "robotic," "clinical," and so forth, and are also described as "reptilian," "lizard-like," or as having reptilian, birdlike, or amphibian skin texture. In many instances the abduction experience moves to a "cavern city," "cavern world," or "underground base."

It is in these latter, subterranean places, that "hybrid beings," having "alien," human, or other animal characteristics are reported as being seen in development, along with cannibalism and torture of human beings. One such site has been alleged by several researchers and "abductees" as being beneath Archuleta Mesa, near Dulce, New Mexico. In these prolonged episodes, other beings enter the scene, such as "hybrid" children who are frail, pale, and ectomorphic, but generally human in appearance. Some abductees have even said that these children look "like fairies!" Other entities are not so harmless, such as a tall, "human" type with an aristocratic, "Aryan" look; these are generally referred to as "Nordics" in the UFO literature, and bear more than a slight resemblance to the "Light Elves" and "Tuatha de Danaan" of old. Are these the "fairy children," hybrids and "changelings," all grown up and hard at work? Another type of entity is more sinister in both appearance and attitude, described as a "reptilian humanoid," "lizard man," or "reptoid," and ranging from five, to eight or nine feet in height. These "reptoids" are usually characterized as being "in charge" of the other types, but upon occasion are said to report to taller, even stranger entities which resemble skeletally-thin, giant "grays," or even "giant mantids." Normal surface humans, paramilitary in nature or appearance, are also seen in these underground areas.

Another interesting factor is that all of the entities described go to great lengths to convince their captives that they have come from "far away," from distant stars, planets, and "vibrational frequencies" or dimensions. They have come all this distance because they are "worried about humanity," or some such heartfelt propaganda (as they stick a huge needle in a woman's abdomen, or up someone's nose, without even local anesthetic). Yet the biology of all the different types or castes of abductors, as horrific as it might appear to superstitious human eyes, is essentially that of animal forms which are natural to the Earth: mammalian and reptilian. Obviously, it is very important to these beings that such a logical connection not be made. If there is even a shred of truth to UFO abduction accounts, then it is more than apparent that the abductors want their victims, and humanity at large, to believe that they are from "somewhere else." While humanity looks continually upward at enigmas in the sky, what is transpiring beneath our very feet?

Additional folk and literature parallels are apparent in the accounts described. The "grays" are identical to the order-following, human-abducting, drone-like GALATUR and Ushabtiu of the Sumerian and Egyptian underworld mythologies. In Shetland Island folklore, "little men" who abducted people were sometimes referred to as the "grey neighbors," and the "grays" also bear a strong resemblance in head and torso structure to the cryptid "El Chupacabras." The methodical imps and djinn which served Satan and Shaitan come to mind as well, and of course, Richard Shaver's "dero" are similar, especially in their use of high technology. The "Nordics," sometimes seemingly the "enemies" of the gray and reptoid types, are often reported as working side-by-side with them in the underground facilities or labs, which recalls the fact that the some nagas were said to look "almost human," as well as the mercurial dispositions of the aristocratic or "Aryan" faeries, the light elves/de Danaan. Additionally, the apocryphal hybrid offspring of Nefilim and humans were described as having an extremely "nordic" or Aryan appearance, as described in The Book of Lamech, and the Slavonic Book of Enoch, and were also said to have a reptilian patch of skin ("badge of priesthood") on their chests or elsewhere. In Celtic Welsh myth, the lord of the underworld of Annwn had a "magical cauldron" which produced an endless supply of warriors for him...Was this an "earth-mother, primal-womb" archetype, or was it instead synonymous with producing offspring through gene-splicing, the "cauldron" actually a "test-tube?"

The reptoids or lizard-men are familiar, as nagas, utukku, ammut, "dragon kings," goblins, trolls, and so on. They, also, are often described as smelling "like rotten eggs" or like sulphur. Both the reptilians and the grays have in recent years passed from the UFO research realm and into "conspiracy" literature, where they are said to be involved in "controlling the Earth," or are in the process of "taking over." Several authors have published the theory that the reptilians are masters of illusion, holographic projection, or are in fact physical shapeshifters which are replacing world leaders, government officials, and public figures, as an insidious "fifth column." Here again are the "changelings" of European folklore, the hologram-utilizing dero, and the "Serpent Men," precisely as described by the fiction writer Robert E. Howard in his pulp-fiction tales of King Kull. This is by no means a "new idea," revelation, or suspicion, but is as ancient as the concept of an underworld itself.


This treatise would not be complete without an examination of another mysterious player from the depths, the MIB or Men In Black. These cool cats figure prominently in both UFO and conspiracy literature. Thanks to the excellent work of researchers and writers John Keel and the late Jim Keith, as well as to the work of a host of others, many small and seemingly inconsequential facts have been obtained from witnesses and preserved.

"Men in Black" seem to fall into two categories: the standard men in black, whom may be actual agents of secret government or military investigative/disinformation groups; and the MIB, whom Keel indicates are somehow in league with, or originating from, the unseen forces behind the various cryptid or creature sightings, as well as the UFO phenomenon. It is the latter category, the MIB, which has bearing here.

These "mystery men" are usually described as of varying height and build, but more often than not they are on the thin side; they generally wear dark or black business-like clothing, dark hats, and sunglasses (again, the eye protection from the sun!). They are either "olive-skinned" and vaguely "oriental" or "asiatic;" or they are "nordic" or "Scandinavian" in complexion, hair color, and physique. From the basic template of these two forms, strange variations have been reported, such as total hairlessness (not even having eyebrows or eyelashes); overly-large, protruding eyes (a "non-mammalian" trait, for the most part, or perhaps due to an unaccustomed lack of atmospheric pressure); wheezing and other trouble breathing, as if unused to earthly (or surface?) air pressure (aeroembolism); unnatural joint movement and locomotion; "reptilian" or "frog-like" cast of skin texture and facial features; webbed fingers; sulphurous or "metallic" odor; and a host of additional oddities of physical configuration. Add to all of this the fact that they are often ignorant or in amazement of the most ordinary surface-world activities--trying to drink gelatin, refusing food and taking a pill instead, stealing or asking for small common objects (like writing pens) as apparently prized souvenirs--and they become even less human through their behavior. They often exhibit a strong interest in the sexuality or sexual habits of those they confront, and the longer they remain on the surface, the more erratic, disoriented, lethargic, or "drunk" they seem to become (a side-effect of rapid de-pressurization, or aeroembolism). With cryptic statements they have sometimes identified themselves to their unwilling visitants as being citizens of "the Nation of the Third Eye," an occult or secret society reference still widely utilized in symbology and ritual today by some "brotherhoods" of "enlightened" human beings, but which hearkens back to the "third eye" of the Naga, or the "skull-pearl" of Chinese dragons. Any relationship this "Nation of the Third Eye" might have to modern-day secret societies is debatable, but the parallel exists.

Another clue lies in the fact that they arrive to their victim's doorsteps in shiny, black cars which are in pristine condition--i.e., "like new." The puzzling thing is that these vehicles are almost always decades out of date, and sometimes seem to be composites of several different makes of cars (still out of date). To remain unravaged by the passage of time--oxidation, dry-rot of tires, and so forth--they would have to be warehoused and maintained in an environment of constant temperature and low humidity, away from weather, sun, and extreme changes in temperature. Add to this the manner in which both the cars and the men suddenly and inexplicably vanish, as if swallowed up by the Earth--but by now the premise is obvious. Some caverns are damp, but many others are exceedingly dry, and all remain constant in temperature, year 'round, after a certain depth.

History and folklore both have parallels. Folklore is filled with "dark men," "men dressed in black," and "grim reapers," often identified in previous centuries as sorcerers, demons, warlocks, or other "servants of the devil," and of course the odor of sulphur and brimstone was a trademark of his from way back. During the plague years of the middle ages, entities resembling both MIB and the now-standard "gray aliens" were often seen in areas which would shortly thereafter be stricken with an outbreak of the dread disease. Throughout history, on the eve of major events, people have repeatedly seen or been harassed by such beings. As Keel points out in Disneyland of the Gods, and his other excellent books, Julius Caesar, Napoleon, and even Malcolm X all reported encounters with this variety of terrifying being. Hitler also was alleged to have had his share of midnight visits from a mysterious "Tibetan," and through him to have met "the New Man," a sort of super-Aryan, whom he believed came from the interior of the Earth, and of whom he was most afraid.

How much fear, confusion, and human suffering can be traced to uncanny visits from these "robotic yet human" agents provocateur? Where are they from, who do they work for, and what is their long-term agenda? Could it be that their goal is to generate confusion and divisions, to keep humanity "looking upward" for an invasion that will never come? The "invaders" may already be here, and may have been here all along. The evidence is in the folklore, religions, myths, literature, and archetypes of humankind. Perhaps they're not "extraterrestrial," but are "intraterrestrial," and there's a vast, unknown world beneath our feet, stretching down through secret, twisting tunnels and deep caverns to the Mohorovocic layer itself, which is an anomalous cavern region, deep beneath the upper crust. What if there is an unknown world beneath our feet, a world that is dependent upon the biodiversity and genetic wealth on the Earth's surface; a world which has been exploiting that wealth for thousands or millions of years, victimizing the ignorant savages who roam the face of the sunlit world? Or could all of the evidence be circumstantial and without merit, simply a misinterpreted conglomeration of coincidence and mis-identified animals, natural phenomena, and archetypes from the human collective unconscious? The critic could toss in an endless supply of over-active imaginations, down through the millennia, but the evidence--dating back as it does for thousands of years of human traditions, and continuing right up through the present day--says otherwise.

The reptilian, vampiric, robotic, and demonic are all characteristics which have been attributed to underworld beings down through the ages. They have haunted mankind's imagination and nightmares since our most remote time. These "archetypal" images speak to us of supernatural terrors and mysteries, but what if they are instead natural, just technologically-advanced to a degree that has only until recently been beyond our comprehension--and therefore considered "magical" or impossible in their level of sophistication? If the latter is the case, then we would do well as a species to become more aware of not only our own planet, but of our mythic and folkloric heritage, for it speaks not of a symbiosis, but of a nearly-invisible Parasite, dwelling in the depths.

--Wm. Michael Mott


Article copyright (c) 2000, Wm. Michael Mott

This article and accompanying illustrations are the property of the author, and may not be reproduced without contractual or written permission. For reprint details, please contact the author. Please do not redistribute without permission. All rights reserved.


BIBLIOGRAPHY of Non-Fiction Sources:

1. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., London-New York-Sidney-Toronto. Sections referenced: Assyro-Babylonian, Egyptian, Celtic, Indian, Chinese, Japanese.

2. Myth and Mankind: Epics of Early Civilization: Myths of the Ancient Near East, Time-Life Books, 1998

3. Myth and Mankind: Epics of Early Civilization: Land of the Dragon, Time-Life Books, 1999

4. The Controllers, by Commander X, Abelard Productions, Inc.

5. Flying Serpents and Dragons, by R.A. Boulay, The Book Tree, 1997, 1998

6. The Forgotten Books of Eden: Lost Books of the Old Testament, Edited by Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., J. Alden Brett. Gramercy Books, Random House, New York 1980

7. The Ramayana, by Valmiki, translated by William Buck. New American Library, 1978

8. Bhagavad-Gita As It Is, Abridged Edition, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1972

9. Japanese Tales, Edited and Compiled by Royall Tyler, Pantheon Books, 1987

10. The Samurai: A Military History, Stephen R. Turnbull. Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977

11. The Story of Sigurd (Volsunga Saga), Translated from the Icelandic by Eirikr Magnusson and William Morris, From A Treasury of Fantasy, Avenel Books, 1981

12. American Elves, An Encyclopedia of Little People from the Lore of 380 Ethnic Groups of the Western Hemisphere, by John E. Roth. MacFarland Books, 1997

13. Folktales of Norway, Edited by Reidar Christiansen, Translated by Pat Shaw Iversen. University of Chicago Press, 1968

14. Scandinavian Folk Belief and Legend, Reimund Kvideland, Henning K. Sehmsdorf, Eds. University of Minnesota Press, 1988.

15. An Encyclopedia of Fairies, by Katherine Briggs. Pantheon Books, 1976

16. Irish Folktales, edited by Henry Glassie. Pantheon Books, 1985

17. The Norse Myths, Kevin Crossley-Holland. Pantheon Books, 1980

18. Celtic Myth and Legend, Poetry and Romance, by Charles Squire. Bell Publishing Co., 1979

19. Gods and Myths of the Viking Age, by H. R. Ellis Davidson. Bell Publishing Co., 1981

20. Passing Strange: True Tales of New England Hauntings and Horrors, by Joseph A. Citro. Houghton Mifflin Co., 1997

21. Myth and Mankind: Gods of Sun and Sacrifice: Aztec & Maya Myth, Time-Life Books, 1997

22. American Indian Myths and Mysteries, by Vincent H. Gaddis. Indian Head Books, New York

23. Popol Vuh, Translated by Dennis Tedlock. Simon and Schuster, 1985

24. MAYA: The Riddle and Rediscovery of a Lost Civilization, by Charles Gallenkamp. Viking Penquin, 1985

25. Bishinik Magazine, That Old Time Choctaw Religion, by Len Green, June 1979

26. Bishinik Magazine, Origins of the Choctaw People Retold from Old Legends, by Len Green, August 1980

27. Lake Monster Traditions: A Cross-Cultural Analysis, by Michel Meurger and Claude Gagnon. Fortean Tomes, 1988

28. The Great Orm of Loch Ness, by F.W. Holiday. W.W. Norton and Co., 1968

29. Chupacabras and Other Mysteries, by Scott Corrales. Greenleaf Publications, 1997

30. Unexplained! by Jerome Clark. Visible Ink Press, 1999

31. Sasquatch/Bigfoot, by Don Hunter and Rene Dahinden. Revised Edition, McClelland & Stewart, 1993

32. The Field Guide to Bigfoot, Yeti, and Other Mystery Primates Worldwide. Loren Coleman and Patrick Huyghe, Avon Books, 1999

33. Subterranean Worlds Inside Earth, by Timothy Green Beckley. Inner Light Productions, 1992

34. Lost Continents and the Hollow Earth, by David Hatcher Childress and Richard S. Shaver. Adventures Unlimited Press, 1999

35. Subterranean Worlds, by Walter Kafton-Minkel. Loompanics Unlimited, 1989

36. The Secret World, by Ray Palmer (with Richard S. Shaver). Amherst Press, 1975

37. Architects of the Underworld, by Bruce Rux. Frog Ltd., 1996

38. Above Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Coverup, by Timothy Good. William Morrow, 1988

39. Alien Contact: Top Secret UFO Files Revealed, by Timothy Good. William Morrow, 1993

40. The Bell Witch of Tennessee, by Charles Bailey Bell, 1934. Facsimile Edition by Charles Elder, Publisher, 1972

41. The Infamous Bell Witch of Tennessee, by Charles Edwin Price. The Overmountain Press, 1994

42. Disneyland of the Gods, by John A. Keel. Illuminet Press, 1995

43. Our Haunted Planet, by John A. Keel. Galde Press, 1999

44. The Mothman Prophecies, by John A. Keel. Illuminet Press, 1991

45. Operation Trojan Horse, by John A. Keel. G.P. Putnam & Sons, 1970

46. Casebook on the Men in Black, by Jim Keith. Illuminet Press, 1997

47. Beowulf, translated by Burton Raffel. New American Library, Mentor Books, 1963


BIBLIOGRAPHY of Fiction Sources:

All Fiction Sources are referenced within the body of the treatise.

Article copyright (c) 2000, Wm. Michael Mott


This article and accompanying illustrations are the property of the author, and may not be reproduced without contractual or written permission. For reprint details, please contact the author. Please do not redistribute without permission. All rights reserved.

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