Part 4

Taking Zizek quite literally is more appropriate then he may ever realize for it is exactly the nodes of music theory, by modeling different orders of information, that so precisely describe the dialectical process. The ratios of the fourth and the fifth are inverse opposites of the octave overtone, in other words, both ratios cause a pull to resolve at the fundamental (and octave). When the ratios are explored at depth, the relation of their overtones are in dissonance. As Rothstein describes, "These two consonant tones (fifth and fundamental) have strongly dissonant overtones...[and] are the poles of tonal musical drama."(105) It's this paradox of the poles that defines the description of thesis and antithesis in the dialectics of music theory. Erno Lendvai states,

By taking a V-I cadence the essential notes in the five chord bear an equal tritonic relationship according to their overtones. These essential notes are what cause the strong feeling to I. By inverting these notes the same tritone relationship is formed...The tritones' overtones act as subdominants [fourths] and as dominants [fifths] at the same time. These two positions neutralize and again, the tritone's relationship to the tonic [fundamental] is found, the two are acoustically interchangeable.(106)

Jeans provides the following on the topic: "In the case of wider intervals such as C and F# [the tritone] there are no beats to be heard, either pleasant or unpleasant, but Helmholtz asserted that C and F# sound badly together because certain of their harmonics (e.g. g' and f'#) make unpleasant beats."(107)

The dialectical process is demonstrated through true music theory by the splitting of nothing (the root of the fundamental) into two parts, the fundamental and the octave, that freely resonate into the next multiple of the fifth, forming a complimentary opposites to the fundamental: the fifth splits the octave and fundamental in half but also pulls to the octave and fundamental. Then, as described by Lendvai, the free vibration of the fifth and its overtone become extreme opposites to the fundamental, via the overtone, forming tritonic relations to the tonic (the tritone is known as "the unutterable" or "diabulus in musica".)(108) But the tritone has no beats (zero) with the fundamental-thus forming the first negation. The tritone overtones then act as the original consonant fifth to the fundamental (with no beats), as described by Lendvai, thus completing the double negation or determinate reflection for the new synthesis. This final synthesis is on-going, represented by the spiral of fifths (not the incorrect circle of fifths taught in the west) that's basic to true music theory--or again, the same beautiful "nodal problem" again and again.

While Zizek, like Bateson, does not stray from the limit of the primordially repressed, he does describe that limit as being magical pre-verbal sound. The primordially repressed are myths that "have no 'original' in the language of intersubjective communication.'" He gives a very significant example,

at the very moment when the reign of (symbolic) Law was being instituted (in what Moses was able to discern as the articulated Commandments), the crowd waiting below Mount Sinai apprehended only the continuous, non-articulated sound of the shofar [a trumpet-type horn]: the voice of the shofar is an irreducible supplement of the (written) Law.

Zizek defines the shofar as "a kind of 'vanishing mediator' between the mythical direct vocal expression of the pre-symbolic life-substance and articulated speech...this strange sound...is strictly analogous to the unconscious act of establishing the difference between the unconscious vortex of drives and the field of Logos in Schelling."(109)

The primordial supplement mentioned by Zizek is also the same Lacanian surplus of desire or the "excess of exaggeration" that is crucial to the dialectical process. Those two key components of Zizek's analysis are analogous to the comma of Pythagoras-the inherent resonance patterns of fundamental vibrations are what create the jouissance (or the sublime enjoyment) that is central to psychological desire and to ideological fanaticism as analyzed by Zizek (the heresy that Bateson mentions). Rothstein states, "The music 'in itself' is the abstract model whose essence defies even a purely formal analysis."(110) Ironically both the symbol for jouissance and for the Pythagorean law of growth are the Greek character phi.(111)

Like Zizek's mythic source, George Frazer's classic cultural analysis, The Golden Bough, that was a major influence on Freud, systematically documents the spiritual process of the "killing of the king" (sacrifice) that in the West became transferred to symbolic structures and reified into a closed linear, one order system. The neuropsychologist Karl Pribram, who did pioneering brain and consciousness research and presented a open systems resonance interpretation of the mind, made a similar case: "...when, because of linguistic and cultural affluence, the means-ends reversal occurs, these languages begin to live lives of their own. Thus complexity is compounded and the original organization can easily be lost sight of."(112)

Zizek's dismissal of social theories that critique western science as a repressive social institution no longer holds because of the presentation of sound-current non-dualism. He refers to Heidegger, pointing out that,

...modern science at its most fundamental cannot be reduced to some limited ontic, 'socially conditioned' option (expressing the interests of a certain social group, etc.), but is rather, the [Lacanian] real of our historical moment, that which 'remains the same' in all possible ('progressive' and 'reactionary', 'technocratic' and 'ecological', 'patriarchal' and 'feminist') symbolic universes.(113)

This is the same theoretical limit of one-dimensional language that was emphasized by Bordwell and Flinn and to which sound-current non-dualism gives a formal answer. Zizek states,

When typical modernist artist speak about the Spiritual in painting (Kandinsky) or in music (Schoenberg), the 'spiritual' dimension they evoke points towards the 'spiritualization' (or, rather, 'spectralization') of Matter (colour and shape, sound) as such, outside its reference to Meaning...it dwells in a kind of intermediate spectral domain of what Schelling called geistige Körperlichkeit. From the Lacanian perspective, it is easy to identify this "spiritual corporeality' as materialized jouissance....(114)

By claiming spiritualization is outside the "reference to Meaning" Zizek falls into the same epistemological trap and misses the crucial open systems connection between quantity and quality that the law of Pythagoras models. As music analyst Rudolf Haase puts it, "in nature an important role is played by those quantities which in man can be transformed into qualities."(115) Or as Zizek himself admits when analyzing Mozart's Don Giovanni, "the very external form of the Count's melody, its discord with its own content (the words sung), articulates the unconscious truth as yet inaccessible to him, to his psychological experience."(116)

Professor Richard Leppert also, like Zizek, examines the subsequent effects of Plato's conceptual error. He connects music, nature and politics through a historical poetics of western art, analyzing how socially the role of music, used for control, has also paradoxically undermined rationalism of the West. Leppert states,

If Barthes is right, the radical political act of making music for oneself--in Victorian culture, this means especially women-involves a temporary reinscription of human 'totality' (mind with body at art) in the lived experience of 'humanities' second sex. This reinscription marks a refusal to abide by the terms of Cartesian dualism, the very foundation of the politics of gender, class, and racial difference-according to which certain men think and all women merely feel.(117)

Like Fraser, Pribram, Zizek and others, symbolic transference of spiritual power to linear thought and language is the problem traced by David F. Noble that has created the modern "religion of technology" which that we are now tracing back to its ancient western origins. The inherent western killing of heretics and "primitive peoples," by considering them "pre-cognitive," is explained from by a purely formal analysis of repressed epistemological error. Unfortunately even the successful grand theorist Ken Wilber falls into the trap of advocating linear western evolution based on a deterministic brain model that does not fully process the findings of Pribram's resonance analysis.(118) Wilber subsequently incorrectly portrays indigenous cultures as inferior and backward-i.e. claiming that their sustainable indigenous knowledge systems are merely accidents reflecting their lack Western technology. Ironically the central text of Tibetan Buddhism, a philosophy from which Wilber draws heavily, commonly called "The Book of the Dead," has its origins in the indigenous Bon culture and is literally translated as "Liberation by Hearing in the Intermediate State."(119) Wilber criticizes social theorists for "eulogizing" tribal cultures, when in fact currently 4 to 5,000 of the 6,000 human cultures are indigenous, still existing with distinct languages, but extremely threatened by corporate state elite policies. There is extensive evidence of indigenous cultures commonly interacting in a reciprocal relationship with the environment as a conscious value system. The outstanding examples of unbalanced indigenous development patterns that Wilber incorrectly suggests are the norm, are due to particular breaks in those cultures from extreme influences (like dramatic climate change and colonialism). Wilber does not recognize the fact that there has been a strong backlash against indigenous research, precisely because of its psychological threat to the linear western worldview. His use of Hawaii to explain his theory of holons is an inaccurate portrayal of genocidal U.S. imperialism-in fact he claims the contrary occurred.(120)

Certainly neither Pribram, nor the global green movement that Wilber supports, are advocating a "regressive" return to pre-industrial society as the immediate dominant fear arises, but instead the societal model of an open spiral process that continually reaffirms the universal common ground of the void. From systems theory music analysis, Leonard Meyer calls this societal model "fluctuating stasis" based on "steady-state" systems theory, a prediction of the same recommendation from radical ecologist open systems theorist Fritoj Capra.(121) In Noise: The Political Economy of Music, Jacques Attali presents a similar societal vision-predicted by and achieved through profound music practices that challenge the hegemony of one-dimensional repressed symbolic abstraction of the western worldview.(122) John E. Peck, worth quoting at length, documents how in fact indigenous cultures already enact concepts of sophisticated open systems theory:

Given its sensitivity to time and place, indigenous knowledge would seem to be better situated to successfully adopt and apply a nonequilibrium perspective to ecosystem management than conventional scientific thinking, particularly in settings unfamiliar to western policy makers. Ecosystemic trajectories are so contextually contingent that an observer can hardly afford to entertain a theoretical framework built upon universal "objectivity" and reductionist "rationality." In fact, the development and implementation of such programs as intensive rotational grazing, biocultural restoration, preventative medicine, and early disaster warning-to name but a few-in western and nonwestern settings alike have relied heavily upon the indigenous knowledge of local people most directly affected.(123)

The great contribution of Wilber is that he also models an understanding of the void and clarifies many of the same western epistemological errors--but the crucial qualitative difference of modeling the void with music theory is that the long-established immoral, genocidal bias against indigenous cultures need not apply. The music analyst John Chernoff in his brilliant work with the Dagomba, African Sensibility: Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical Idioms, notes that "The power and dynamic potential of the music is in the silence, and the gaps between the notes, [the absolute void] and it is into this openness that a creative participant will place his contribution, trying to open up the music further." Chernoff realized that music serves as a conscious cultural practice to access the void and obtain transformative powers in these cultures. He points out that "both [the dialectical Marcuse and Lacan] are suggestive of ways in which Western philosophical literature on alienation is addressed in the aesthetics of African music."(124) It should be emphasized, of course, that Wilber also draws heavily from the Pythagorean tradition, as well as Rupert Sheldrake's theory of morphic resonance. Parmenides, who plays a significant role in Wilber's work, was taught by "the Pythagorean Ameinias," he notes. Wilber's main analysis, Sex, Ecology, Spirituality, is, as he comments, the first part of a trilogy called "Kosmos," a Pythagorean term meaning "the patterned nature or process of all domains of existence, from matter to math to theos, and not merely the physical universe, which is usually what both 'cosmos' and 'universe' mean today."(125)

One of the main arguments that Wilber uses to present the civilized worldviews over indigenous sustainable models is the concept of depth via holons-it is holons (or whole/parts grounded in nothingness, just as music models) that fill the Pythagorean Kosmos. Music theory also ironically proves, by modeling "depth" as well in a more direct manner, how the dominant post-Pythagorean western worldview is not as sophisticated or accurate as the majority of human cultures (i.e. sustainable indigenous cultures) that it's corporate-state policies are destroying.(126) In the application of the law of Pythagoras and its derivative principles (of harmony and growth) music analyst Berendt notes that "Each spin [of all particles] contains all prior whole-number spins....this is the process of differentiation and development...the higher the spin, the higher the state of consciousness."(127) Thus the vortex or spirals express the same concept of Wilber's depth, and are a combination of the hierarchy (vertical) and heterarchy (horizontal) perspectives that have riddle radical ecology theorists-a topic Wilber gives great attention to. But demonstrating this concept through music theory has another profound implication, as Berendt quotes musicologist Gerhard Nestler:

One-line music with an indefinite pitch and with its wide range of intermediate tones and overtones has a wider base of expression than polyphonic music with its definite pitch and its interval structure, than Conventional Western music, that is. In the final analysis, such music is unhearable. What we hear is its symbol. The symbol is the tones that man chooses from the wealth of tones provided by the universe. Such music grows out of the polar tensions between the audible and the inaudible.(128)

Nestler's point explains that the reification of the symbols of the first order of information (the ratios of the scale and one-dimensional logos), by post-Pythagorean Greek epistemology, lead to the loss of the open system spiritual music analysis originally derived from the one-note scales typically found in indigenous cultures. Modal music, the true "classical" music found around the world, has a "certain mental, spiritual attitude" because it is consciously reflecting the values of those sustainable cultures. As Berendt documents, "Many of the world's cultures have passed down sagas and myths, legends and tales in which the world has its origin in sound, from the Aztecs to the Eskimos, from the Persians to the Indians and the Malayans."(129)

To reiterate, this universal primacy of open system harmonic analysis was reflected by the ancient Greek language of phasis of which logos was just one variant. Complexity and chaos theorists Marturana and Varela have argued, similarly to Pibram, that language itself is a development of rhythmic vibrations of energy: Capra reports that they come to the same cultural implications:

due to resonance phenomenon...cognitive experiential states are created by the synchronization of fast oscillations in the gamma and beta range that tend to arise and subside quickly... Varela's hypothesis establishes a neurological basis for the distinction between conscious and unconscious cognition...since language results in a very sophisticated and effective coordination of behavior, the evolution of language allowed the early human beings to greatly increase their cooperative activities and to develop families, communities, and tribes that gave them tremendous evolutionary advantages. The crucial role of language in human evolution was not the ability to exchange ideas, but the increased ability to cooperate. As the diversity and richness of our human relationships increased, our humanity-our language, art, thought, and culture-unfolded accordingly. At the same time, we also developed the ability of abstract thinking, of bringing forth an inner world of concepts, objects, and images of ourselves. Gradually, as this inner world became ever more diverse and complex, we began to lose touch with nature and became ever more fragmented personalities. Thus arose the tension between wholeness and fragmentation, between body and soul....(130)

The argument presented by the open systems theorists is backed by the historical analysis of Kingsley who also further confirms that Plato and Aristotle specifically instituted denigration of a more complex Pythagorean language of meaning. As Kingsley puts it, "By the time of Plato and Aristotle, the doors of understanding were closed;" "argument is more important than appreciation, reinterpretation an easy substitute for understanding;" "[the denigration] destroyed the mythical dialectic." The Pythagoreans orally conveyed a language and lifestyle built on "see-saw oscillations and balancing forces" that create an accurate and sophisticated system of meaning which integrates and explains in detail eschatology, cosmology, geology, mathematics and energy systems practice.(131) Included in this system was the "incantatory use of poetry for harmonizing emotions." Kingsley documents that the Pythagoreans were the source for Plato's Phaedo, Gorgia and Orphic allegories-even the accurate heliocentric system of astronomy. Plato was "indebted to the Pythagorean oral tradition" and Plato "himself was only too aware of the limitation of the written text as a medium of genuine communication."(132)

The degeneration of complexity is well established, as is its intentionality:

...since the publication of Cherniss's work on Aristotle and the Presocratics in 1935 there has been a deeper awareness not only of the fact that Aristotle and his school were frequently capable of misunderstanding the Presocratics at a very fundamental level, but also of the fact that he and his followers systematically used deliberate misunderstanding and 'shameless' misrepresentation as a way of silencing their predecessors.(133)

The formal reversal of the secret 'irrational' open-spiral of music analysis and its mirrored inaccurate closed symbolic one-dimensional circle variant and linear written system can be traced historically:

We have already seen evidence of the role played by Archytas' school in reinterpreting-often quite radically-Pythagorean mythological ideas which were current in the generation of Philolaus;...it is quite possible that the idea of the centre of a circle , or sphere, as its most 'honourable' place [in the reinterpretation] is related to Archytas' exaltation of the geometric properties of the circle and sphere.(134)

Ironically the influence of Pythagoras has been so profound for Western culture that it is the exact original spiritual source for the western elite degeneration to one-dimensional materialism that also goes back to Aristotle. Kingsley writes, "Dieterich devoted a book to showing the extent to which the Christian Apocalyspse-found only in fragmentary form at Akmin in Upper Egypt and in a version in Ethiopic-is dependent on Orphic and Pythagorean traditions."(135) Pythagoreans were also highly adept at creating sophisticated technologies. And like the self-fulfilling elite enactment of the apocalypse described by Noble, for the Pythagoreans,

it is not difficult to detect an underlying schema of descent into the underworld as prelude to a celestial ascent. This apparent illogic is the logic of myth. One dies to be reborn; one descends into the depths in order to ascend....This fundamental idea was so strong that it managed to survive intact in spite of the cruder Christian dramatizations of hell-fire, suffering, and punishment,....(136)

The crucial difference between the Pythagoreans and the later Christians is that for the Pythagoreans being reborn is a spiritual journey not dependant on a one-dimensional restoration of the Fall of Adam through a repressive controlling power over the Other (nature, gender, non-whites, the poor). The Pythagoreans, believing in God as immanent in nature, were focused on preserving and utilizing nature in its multi-dimensional spiraled harmony. Like the power of Pythagoreanism, Taoist qi gong has also been recognized by the elite-for instance when Dr. Yan Xin first visited the U.S. President George Bush requested that Master Xin visit the White House eight separate times! Similarly the military elite of Burma, home of the world's worst regime, regularly look to the local spiritual masters as a hopes of maintaining power.(137)

The symbolic dialectics of Pythagoreans and the dialectics of Hegel (both modeled by a spiral or a systems theory mobius strip for Zizek) are also directly connected to the dialectics of Taoist qi gong. Kingsley notes, "In terms not only of formal and structural analogies but also of historical contacts, there can be no separating the Thracian Orpheus [of Pythagorean equivalence] from central-Asiatic shamanic tradition." Just as the Taoist qi gong masters, the Pythagorean masters strove for immortality and were documented to work paranormal acts. This connection with Taoism is also made explicit by the motif of the Pythagorean Master Empedocles who, "dies a miraculous death by vanishing into thin air but who leaves a tell-tale item...A more classic Taoist concept is that of achieving the divine state either by fashioning a spirit-body...thoughtfully leaving a pile of discarded garments...."(138) According to qi gong Master Dr. Yan Xin, qi gong is actually older than Taoism and its shamanic roots are verified and clarified today by the use of scientific dialectical thought. The global qi gong upheaval will, according to Dr. Yan Xin, achieve a new global scientific and moral revolution-or energy monism. As Kingsley points out, "On these principles...the notion of sympathies and antipathies [the law of Pythagoras] in Greek magic and alchemy and the analogies to both in China, see Needham [Science and Civilization in China]."(139)

Even still, as Berendt, Zizek have pointed out, the Hegelian dialectical process, just like dialectical music theory and Taoist qi gong, has been misinterpreted by the West as a goal of the closed Absolute Subject. Similarly the dialectical theory of radical ecology where the limits of rationalism are marked by "wildness" (akin to Kant's antinomies) have also been misinterpreted, by Zizek, and by Keulartz's "cosmic nature characterized by perfect harmony."140 Systems theorist Gregory Bateson states,

To see myself as part of a system which includes me and the chaparral frames a reason for my action-to preserve the ongoing cycling of us (me and the chaparral) by actively burning the chaparral. I think synchronic action-framed like that-is Taoist-it's a sort of passivity. There is no diachronic action in the Eternal Present. But to rush to preserve the human species against a galactic threat or to get ready for a biblical apocalypse, that would be diachronic.141

Unfortunately, as Morris Berman has documented, precisely because of the psycho-spiritual repression under a reified one-dimensional closed symbolic system, when the undercurrent of non-dualism is tapped, it is assimilated by the dominant reactionary forces.142 Corporate-state fascism has already promoted the guise of being nature-loving under the label of Nazism and now eco-fascism, a term Berman uses, is the threat of a genetically-engineered micro-chipped social cleansing lead by the "life sciences" of Cargill, the Rockefeller Foundation, Monsanto and their interlocking elite associates.143 Systems theory, ever since it was co-opted by the Rand Corporation for the promotion of military jingoism and the corporate-state-has been applied in an inaccurate and thus immoral manner.144

Unlike the unified authoritarian structure of the corporate-state, radical ecology based in music theory, does not call for an all-encompassing master plan but only basic principles--the most important of which is that all energy derives from the common void that connects us. We are forced to literally accept nothing and its infinitely cycling potential. Or as Kelartz states, "Power is in the hands of the people, to be sure but it 'belongs' to no one; it retains its transcendent position in an sense, but this position is necessarily vacant."145 Music theory and its resultant infinitely complex universal steady-state, uniquely emphasizes this fundamental priority, thus counteracting the social Darwinism of other so-called "holistic" models based in positivism-thus affirming Keulartz's critique of Murray Bookchin's social ecology. Bookchin has also been discredited by radical ecology itself, as David Watson's Beyond Bookchin: Preface for a future social ecology demonstrates.146

To further address Keulartz's insightful criticisms in The Struggle for Nature: A critique of radical ecology, unlike Foucault's concept of bio-power that arose during the Victorian age, death is not discredited in radical ecology, as Bateson's above "burning" example shows. Also, unlike Keulartz' description of bio-power, the institutions of society are considered creations of people's sovereignty and inalienable rights in radical ecology, as expressed by the Earth First! movement consistent call for the legal right to revoke corporate charters. Open systems anarchism and radical ecology do not discredit the role of people's sovereignty, as Keulartz incorrectly claims, but affirm the fundamental right of citizens to a form of free association that respects sovereignty-this same revolutionary right is maintained in the constitutional framework.147 Master Mantak Chia points out that people, as the most complex receptors of universal energy, play a special role in manifesting universal harmony (structurally our heart-brain is the direction recipient of refined energy whereas for most animals their tail channels the energy to the body first).148

Ecofeminist Dr. Vandana Shiva clarifies the connections between systems theory, sovereignty and radical ecology:

One of the rights is local sovereignty. Local resources have to be managed on the principle of local sovereignty, wherein the natural resources of the village belong to that village....Self-healing and repair is another characteristic of living systems that derives from complexity and self-organization...External control reduces the degrees of freedom a system has, thereby reducing its capacity to organize and renew itself...A system is autopoietic when its function is primarily geared toward self-renewal. An autopoietic system refers to itself [sovereignty]. In contrast, an allopoietic system, such as a machine, refers to a function given from outside, such as the production of a specific output...Self-organizing systems form from within, shaping themselves outwards. Externally organized mechanical systems do not grow; they are made, put together from the outside....Self-organization is the essence of health and ecological stability for living systems....Ecological problems arise from applying the engineering paradigm to life. This paradigm is being deepened through genetic engineering, which will have major ecological and ethical implications [i.e. extinction]...life is seen as having instrumental rather than intrinsic value. Thus, there is a self-directed capacity for restoration. The faculty of repair is, in turn, related to resilience. When organisms are treated as machines, and manipulated without recognition of the ability to self-organize, their capacity to heal and repair breaks down, and they need increasing inputs and controls to be maintained. 149

In fact, Keulartz's promotion of Hannah Arendt's theory on inter-subjective power, mirrors the difference between Keulartz's fear of "submission to a higher force" and the role of resonance in music theory. As he describes, "Power appears as soon as and as long as people act and speak together. Unlike violence, power can never be appropriated and in fact is increased by sharing. [i.e. resonance or harmony]" 150 The concept of submission draining energy is emphasized by Mantak Chia and both Taoist qi gong and music theory are premised on the indigenous concept of natural law or reciprocity, as the proportional law of Pythagoras demonstrates. Keulartz goes on to refer to Habermas' assertion that "The more language succeeds in freeing itself from sacral bonds...the better able we are to arrive at a shared understanding by ourselves."151 It is precisely this affirmation of the true roots of language via music theory that enables a psychological cure to the repressed "sacral bonds."

With this overview of the relationship to logos in mind, multidimensional rhythmic patterns of energy are an accurate premise for the matrix of the Deleuze's "life-forces" mentioned in the promotion of his "eco-philosophy" by Rosi Braidotti in the recent Sustainability and the Social Sciences. 152

Keulartz's final point is that evolutionary ecology has eclipsed systems ecology but evolutionary ecology is based on the same teleological systems theory worldview that he dismisses, namely the principle, easily modeled by music, of absolute void negentropy or self-organization. The principle of self-organization reflects the natural law from which radical ecology is derived but it is not the same "natural law" to which Keulart refers to: Kingsley documents that natural law is not accurately reflected by the "divine logos" of the post-Pythagorean stoics as Keulartz assumes. Also there is a fundamental qualitative difference between dissipative structures of chaos and complexity occurring through natural evolution and the planet's fastest mass extinction that is enacted by corporate-state eco-cide.153 I agree with Green Party Presidential candidate Ralph Nader's recommendation--let us all be epicenters or resonating nodes of justice.

Pythagoreans very much represented an integrated culture that was cooperative, multi-dimensional and reflected a love of wisdom, ecology, and compassion. Pythagoreans practiced a culture of equality of sexes, integrity of justice, sophisticated herbology and strict vegetarianism.154 Pythagoras focused on social change and creating a cosmopolitan ecological society of transcendence founded in the void. C.A. Bowers in The Culture of Denial bases a radical ecological model of society from the Pythagorean-inspired open systems theory of Gregory Bateson-those ideas are also conveyed by New Paradigm theorist Fritoj Capra who makes the appeal:

...we need to think systemically, shifting our conceptual focus from objects to relationships. Only then can we realize that identity, individuality, and autonomy do not imply separateness and independence....This reconnecting, religio in Latin, is the very essence of the spiritual grounding of deep ecology....A major clash between economics and ecology derives from the fact that nature is cyclical, where as our industrial systems are linear...The so-called free market does not provide consumers with proper information, because the social and environmental costs of production [as well as intrinsic value] are not part of current economic models.155

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