The pyramids in Egypt have been part of the landscape for thousands of years, yet today we know very little about the purpose for which they were built or by what civilization, nor do we have any real confirmation of when they were built or by what means.
We can be sure that at some time or other the pyramids must have been looted for their valuable artifacts. It is a pity, as they would surely have helped the archaeologists in solving some of the mysteries.
Although Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great in 332 BC, little was mentioned about its ancient monuments. However, we should be thankful to Napoleon for directing the world's attention to what we know as Egyptology.
The modern European study of ancient Egypt began after Napoleon's army attacked Cairo on July 12, 1798. The battle took place near Giza, 16 kilometers (10 miles) south west of Cairo. It was known as "The Battle of the Pyramids". In addition to his troops, Napoleon had taken with him a team of 200 scientists, scholars and artists. His first concern was to house them after he had captured Cairo. He requisitioned some mansions and established what was called the "Institute of Egypt".
No doubt his purpose was to document and record Egyptian monuments and whatever artifacts his people found. His troops had pushed further into Egypt and a great discovery was made in 1799, near a place called Rosette (which is about 40 miles from Alexandria). One of his men had dug up an unusual, flat-faced stone that was engraved in three separate sections of pictures and writing. It was part of a stele which became known as the "Rosetta Stone" which is now in the British Museum in London. (The French fleet were captured at Alexandria in 1801 by the British and the stone was surrendered to ensure the safe transport of the civilian team of scholars and artists back to France.) The top section of the stone was carved in rows depicting images of animals, birds, humans and symbols. These were recognized as "Hieroglyphs", a word derived from the combination of Greek words "hieros" meaning sacred, and "glyphein" meaning to carve. The centre section was in a simplified arrangement of hieroglyphs known as "Demotic" which was commonly used by the ancient Egyptians. The bottom section was in Greek and it was believed that it was a translation of the above carvings. If that were the case, then it would be a simple matter to decode the hieroglyphic texts.
Fortunately Napoleon ordered cast copies of the stone to be made so that scholars would try and interpret them. It was through one of the plaster casts that a young boy named Jean Francois Champollion, having devoted 14 years studying the symbols, was able to decipher the hieroglyphseven though he had never seen the original stone. Finding the key was a big step forward, as archaeologist and scholars were then able understand other items and monuments that had pictographs.
Whilst the French were at Giza, they made many calculations and drawings of the pyramids and the Sphinx. This publicity led many more people throughout the world to be interested in Egypt. The monuments at Giza, especially the Great Pyramid and the Sphinx, have been the subject of many authors.
In recent years the study has been intensified especially in the light of Edgar Cayce´s predictions that a chamber will soon be found containing some ancient records of mankind. That, however, may have come from him learning about an earlier period. Apparently in the fourth century AD, a Roman named Ammianus Marcellinus had somehow informed treasure hunters about underground chambers in the Great Pyramid that housed ancient scrolls and books containing, amongst other things, secrets of science. They were placed there for safekeeping in fear that they might be destroyed in the great Flood. If that is the case, it suggests that the Great Pyramid may have been built before the Flood. However this is frowned upon by many Egyptian scholars and archaeologists who believe that their ancestors built their pyramids and Sphinx. There has been much controversy, as some author's claim that they were built by aliens. [The word "pyramid" comes from the Coptic "pyr" which means division, and "met", meaning ten, "the division of ten". It is also composed of the Greek words "pyra" meaning fire, light, or visible, and the word "midos" meaning measures.]
As of now, there have only been 98 pyramids found by archaeologists in Egypt. They were all erected on the West Bank of the Nile. None has ever been found on the East Side. There are three main pyramids on the Giza plateau, which can be seen on the horizon from some of the suburbs of Cairo. The southernmost is the pyramid of Menkaure (Greek: Mycerinus), the sixth king of the Fourth Dynasty. Alongside is the pyramid of Khafre (Greek: Chephren), the fourth of the eight kings of the Fourth Dynasty and to the north of it is the pyramid of Khufu (Greek: Cheops), the second king of the Fourth Dynasty. It is also known as the Great Pyramid Cheops or the Great Pyramid. No doubt it was erected before the others.
It is in fact, the largest pyramid in existence. It originally stood about 481feet (147 meters) in height when it had its topmost stones (Capstone), which according to some mystics was made of gold. The pyramid is estimated to have about two and a half million blocks of stone, ranging in weight from about 2 ˝ to 30 tons, although some may weigh as much as 70 tons. The volume weight of the pyramid would probably be around 6 million tons. It covers an area of over 13 acres (5.3 hectares). Within the pyramid's stone structure, there is more than enough room to put London's Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's Cathedral and Italy's Cathedrals of Florence and St. Peter's!
Whoever built it had far more knowledge than we have today, as the measurements show astonishing accuracy. The pavement around the pyramid is level to within less than 1 inch (2.5 cm). The lengths of the shortest and longest sides (which are over 756 feet (230meters), differ by only 8 inches (20cm). Most outstanding is the fact that it was erected with each side oriented towards the four cardinal points of the compass. It was probably aligned by observation of the sun, planets and stars.
The massive blocks were fitted together with great precision, locking together like a jigsaw with only a paper-thin distance between the joints. The casing stones were placed with an accuracy of 5/1000ths of an inch, with a gap of about 2/100ths of an inch for mortar. The mortar used is of an unknown origin.
Although the mortar has been analysed and its chemical composition known, it cannot be reproduced even with today's technology. The mortar is stronger than the actual stones. It is virtually impossible to duplicate such a monument, even with today's technology and sophisticated equipment. Even though there have been many theories of how it was erected and by whom, so far nothing has been proven.
The site for erecting the pyramids was well chosen, as the Giza Plateau is a fairly level granite bedrock base, similar to a flat-topped mountain. Other regions near the Great Pyramid could not have supported the immense weight of the structures.
The engineering of the known interior chambers and causeways have also baffled scientists. Moreover, sophisticated sounding equipment has shown that there are other, as yet uncovered, cavities. Some of these spaces are probably filled with sand, making their exploration difficult. However, efforts and experiments continue. Still, it will take many years before we find all the hidden chambers and any artifacts they might contain. I am hopeful they will provide clues to help solve some of the pyramid's mysteries. There has been much speculation as to when the Great Pyramid was built, by whom, how and for what purpose. It is believed to have been built around 2700 BC. However there has been much controversy over that, as others believed it was built thousands of years before the pharaohs. Apart from some hieroglyphic quarry marks that were left above the roof in some of the cavities of the so-called "King's Chamber", there has not been any other text found in the pyramid. There is speculation that those marks were forged.
As yet, they have not been thoroughly examined and authenticated. Another great mystery has been the missing apex stone. Some believe that it was stolen, however, it would have been quite large if the capstone was in one piece. The likely area would have been approximately 8.5 feet (2.89 meters) high with the sides of its base about 13.5 feet (4.12 meters). It is thought to have always been absent and that it was an exact replica of the pyramid.
Also interesting is the fact that the four sides of the Great Pyramid are not exactly flat but slightly concave. It was the only pyramid to be built in that particular manner. The centres of the four sides are indented with an extraordinary degree of precision forming the only 8-sided pyramid. While the effect is not particularly visible from the ground, it is easily seen from the air (under the proper lighting conditions). Interestingly, it does show up on an old drawing, which was done by one of Napoleons artists. I believe that the Great Pyramid, was made by a much earlier civilisation than the Egyptians and that it is over 6,000 years old, perhaps significantly older. It was apparently designed to be an everlasting building, as it has certainly withstood climate changes, including earthquakes and floods that might have taken place in the area.
It may have been erected as some sort of holy place. Apart from some graphics on the wall of the Room of Chaos and what might be termed as graffiti in parts of the ceiling cavities in the King's Chamber, no hieroglyphics or writings have been found anywhere else in the pyramid.
It is the only pyramid that has four narrow shafts. They are what the Egyptologists usually describe as "ventilation channels". The King's Chamber has two shafts, each about 5 inches in diameter, which connect to the exterior. The Queen's Chamber also has two, but they stop just short of the walls of the chamber and do not penetrate completely to the exterior. In addition to ventilation, I believe that they may also have been used as some kind of sounding system and for observing the heavens.
Apart from the metal fittings filmed by Rudolph Gantenbrink from his robot device inside the shaft on 22 March 1993, the only other item found so far has been an empty, red granite coffer in the King's Chamber. No Pharaoh's body, mummies or treasure chamber has ever been found in the Great Pyramid.
It appears that it was too large to fit through the passages, so it might have been put in place whilst the pyramid was under construction. Analysis of the coffer revealed that it was made with some sort of drill that used hard jewel bits and a drilling force of 2 tons. It was cut out of one block of solid granite.
Astonishingly, the cubic capacity of the coffer coincides with the measurements of the biblical chest of Moses, namely the Ark of the Covenant. According to Egyptian press, there will be some interesting things happening at Giza for the millennium. The Great Pyramid of Cheops will be rigged to emit golden rays of light and bathe an international audience of about 50,000 people at dawn on the year 2000. Video images of the moment will also be beamed to a world television audience in what officials see as a great opportunity to promote Egypt.
I feel that the Great Pyramid should not be subject to those celebrations. I am sure that whoever built it would not consent to the millennium plans, especially the placement of a golden pyramid atop the pyramid's missing peak to transmit rays of light for the dawn culmination! As I have mentioned, the sides of the pyramid are slightly concave and there must have been a specific reason for this. I should imagine that the original apex had the same concave contour. However, if they now want to place a new capstone on it that does not follow the contours, then it would surely put the Great Pyramid out of its original alignment. This may cause problems for Egypt, perhaps the Middle East and the entire planet, as it may even cause all these places to be out of alignment too!
Perhaps the energy of the pyramid or its vibration source, foresaw that this was going to happen. I believe that the shooting incident last yearwhich killed some tourists and sparked a decline in Egyptian tourism probably started when the idea for these celebrations was first conceived. Maybe the extreme weather conditions and earthquakes that have recently occurred are also part of this effect. Perhaps we are being warned… Hopefully the capstone will be made with the same contours as the rest of the Great Pyramid. What about the fact that the capacity of the stone coffer being the same as the Ark of the Covenant? Is this merely a coincidence or is there some sort of significant connection?
The Ark of the Covenant was 2.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 Sacred Cubits. (Exodus, chapter 25 verse 10). Guessing the thickness of the sides as 1.8 PI gives a volume of 71,282 cubic pyramid inches vs. the volume of the coffer of 71250 cubic pyramid inches!
For the past few years I have been on what might be termed as a psychic quest, to "find the Ark", which I (and some of my colleagues), believe is located about 100 miles from Cairo. We believe that Moses, who (according to the Old Testament) was brought up in the Pharaoh's house, would surely have known more about the Great Pyramid than we do today. According to psychic information, Moses had removed (from a special container in a chamber that is now concealed in the pyramid), some items that helped him make the Exodus possible. Perhaps that chamber will also hold some ancient records. We believe that he knew a method to open the chamber using vibrations from a certain sound and was able to close it by reversing the sound.
An experiment was made last year in the Great Pyramid that produced some startling effects when some of the seventy-two names of GOD were chanted. They not only made all the lights inside the pyramid go out but it blew the buttons off the person who uttered those words. It also burnt a mark on his chest where he had worn a crystal pendant!
It was once widely believed by the Jews, that a secret name existed, which was the unspoken word of GOD. It is the Tetragrammaton (word of four letters) of the Hebrew letters hvhy (YHVH) pronounced YAHWEH. Moreover, it was presumed that there was an even more powerful word being HIS " Supreme Name" which is much longer, made up with seventy-two syllables. The source can be found in three verses in Exodus. Some people believe that those individual syllables represent seventy-two names of GOD.
Is it a coincidence that the letters and sound for the Hebrew word "Ark" is very similar to Moses brother's name? Aaron (who was the High Priest)? The Hebrew letters for Ark are NIIOora (pronounced ARON) and the Hebrew letters for Aaron are Nrha (AHARON). From that, it appears that the Ark was named after Aaron.
It is mentioned three times in Exodus that the Children of Israel should take with them gold and silver jewellery, when they departed from Egypt. Apparently Moses needed those items to copy the container in the Great Pyramid, in order to house the "tablets of stone" (Ten Commandments), whilst at Mount Sinai.
The jewellery was also required for the other holy items that had to be made (mentioned in Exodus, chapters 25, 26 and 27). They including the "Breastplate of Judgement" which was inscribed with the names of Jacobs sons, who became the leaders of the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
The Children of Israel got that title, as they were the descendants of Jacob. His name was changed to Israel (Genesis, chapter 32 verses 28-29 and chapter 35 verse 10). That is why the country of Israel is so named. People have been looking for the Ark since it disappeared. Some have searched the Holy Scriptures looking for clues. However all their efforts have been fruitless. It is presumed that there were other copies made of Moses Ark. One of them may be in Axum (Ethiopia) in the sanctuary at Saint Mary of Zion church. However, the guardian (according to his superiors instruction), would not permit anyone to see it, nor would he show a photo or drawing of it or even discuss what it looked like.
That being the case, then how can they prove it is the actual Ark of the Covenant? For one thing, it would have to be examined by the experts to determine when it was made. When Moses Ark is found, it may still contain the so-called Holy items. If so they should be returned to their rightful place in their original container, that we believe is still in the Great Pyramid. Moses Ark should then be returned to Jerusalem, as a symbol for the three Great Religions. Apparently there has not been any archaeological evidence that Moses had existed (although that does not prove that he didn't). Finding the Ark would certainly authenticate parts of the Old Testament and would also provide the archaeologists with further information.
It appears that the Exodus was some sort of Divine plan, to increase the world's population that believes in the ONE GOD. Because of Moses and the Exodus, the Jewish religion was formed. However, the Jews were only a minority. In order to spread the word further afield, Jesus had to be born so that Christianity would make millions more people hold the belief in a single GOD. Yet, that was still not enough, so Mohammed came on the scene. Through him the Muslim faith was adapted, increasing the population that believes in that same deity.
The three Great Religions from the Middle East are strongly connected with the same belief. The Ark (or Golden Box) is referenced not only in the Old and New Testament but also in the Koran. Hopefully the day will come when the peoples of those religions will live peacefully together, especially in the Middle East-- where they all began.
Footnote: We are looking for someone or an organisation to sponsor a small pilot expedition to locate the Ark of the Covenant and perhaps the original container in the Great Pyramid.
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